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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to            
Commission File Number: 001-33500
 
JAZZ PHARMACEUTICALS PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Ireland 98-1032470
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
Fifth Floor, Waterloo Exchange
Waterloo Road, Dublin 4, Ireland D04 E5W7
011-353-1-634-7800
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary shares, nominal value $0.0001 per share JAZZThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of June 30, 2022, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $9,527,447,500 based upon the last sale price reported for the registrant’s ordinary shares on such date on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. The calculation of the aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common equity excludes 1,548,177 ordinary shares of the registrant held by executive officers, directors and shareholders that the registrant concluded were affiliates of the registrant on that date. Exclusion of such shares should not be construed to indicate that any such person possesses the power, direct or indirect, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the registrant or that such person is controlled by or under common control with the registrant.
As of February 22, 2023, a total of 63,331,430 ordinary shares, nominal value $0.0001 per share, of the registrant were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information required by Part III, Items 10-14 of this Form 10‑K is incorporated by reference to the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2023 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A. If such Proxy Statement is not filed within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10‑K, such information will be included in an amendment to this Form 10‑K to be filed within such 120-day period.

1

Table of Contents

JAZZ PHARMACEUTICALS PLC
2022 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Page
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.

We own or have rights to various copyrights, trademarks, and trade names used in our business in the U.S. and/or other countries, including the following: Jazz Pharmaceuticals®, Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) oral solution, Xywav® (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium oxybates) oral solution, Epidiolex® (cannabidiol) oral solution, Epidyolex® (the trade name in Europe and other countries outside the U.S. for Epidiolex), Defitelio® (defibrotide sodium), Defitelio® (defibrotide), CombiPlex®, Vyxeos® (daunorubicin and cytarabine) liposome for injection, Vyxeos® liposomal 44 mg/100 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion, Zepzelca® (lurbinectedin), Rylaze® (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) and Sativex® (nabiximols) oral solution. This report also includes trademarks, service marks and trade names of other companies. Trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K are the property of their respective owners.
2

Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10‑K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “project,” “predict,” “propose,” “intend,” “continue,” “potential,” “possible,” “strive,” “seek,” “designed,” “goal”, “foreseeable,” “likely,” “unforeseen” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance, time frames or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance, time frames or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We discuss many of these risks, uncertainties and other factors in greater detail under Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. In addition, our goals and objectives are aspirational and are not guarantees or promises that such goals and objectives will be met. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this filing. You should read this Annual Report on Form 10‑K completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We hereby qualify our forward-looking statements by our cautionary statements. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update our forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons that actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.
SUMMARY RISK FACTORS
Below is a summary of material factors that make an investment in our ordinary shares speculative or risky. Importantly, this summary does not address all of the risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional discussion of the risks and uncertainties summarized in this risk factor summary, as well as other risks and uncertainties that we face, can be found under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. The below risk factor summary is qualified in its entirety by that more complete discussion of such risks and uncertainties. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K as part of your evaluation of an investment in our ordinary shares.
Our inability to maintain or increase sales from our oxybate franchise would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
The introduction of new products in the U.S. market that compete with, or otherwise disrupt the market for, our oxybate products and product candidates would adversely affect sales of our oxybate products and product candidates.
The distribution and sale of our oxybate products are subject to significant regulatory restrictions, including the requirements of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, and safety reporting requirements, and these regulatory and safety requirements subject us to risks and uncertainties, any of which could negatively impact sales of Xywav and Xyrem.
While we expect our oxybate products and Epidiolex/Epidyolex to remain our largest products, our success also depends on our ability to effectively commercialize our other existing products and potential future products.
We face substantial competition from other companies, including companies with larger sales organizations and more experience working with large and diverse product portfolios, and competition from generic drugs.
Adequate coverage and reimbursement from third party payors may not be available for our products and we may be unable to successfully contract for coverage from pharmacy benefit managers and other organizations; conversely, to secure coverage from these organizations, we may be required to pay rebates or other discounts or other restrictions to reimbursement, either of which could diminish our sales or adversely affect our ability to sell our products profitably.
The pricing of pharmaceutical products has come under increasing scrutiny as part of a global trend toward healthcare cost containment and resulting changes in healthcare law and policy, including recently enacted changes to Medicare, may impact our business in ways that we cannot currently predict, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
In addition to access, coverage and reimbursement, the commercial success of our products depends upon their market acceptance by physicians, patients, third party payors and the medical community.
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Delays or problems in the supply of our products for sale or for use in clinical trials, loss of our single source suppliers or failure to comply with manufacturing regulations could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our future success depends on our ability to successfully develop and obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our late-stage product candidates and, if approved, to successfully launch and commercialize those product candidates.
We may not be able to successfully identify and acquire or in-license additional products or product candidates to grow our business, and, even if we are able to do so, we may otherwise fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these transactions.
Conducting clinical trials is costly and time-consuming, and the outcomes are uncertain. A failure to prove that our product candidates are safe and effective in clinical trials, or to generate data in clinical trials to support expansion of the therapeutic uses for our existing products, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
It is difficult and costly to protect our proprietary rights, and we may not be able to ensure their protection.
We have incurred and may in the future incur substantial costs as a result of litigation or other proceedings relating to patents, other intellectual property rights and related matters, and we may be unable to protect our rights to, or commercialize, our products.
Significant disruptions of information technology systems or data security breaches could adversely affect our business.
We are subject to significant ongoing regulatory obligations and oversight, which may subject us to civil or criminal proceedings, investigations, or penalties and may result in significant additional expense and limit our ability to commercialize our products.
If we fail to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate program or other governmental pricing programs, we could be subject to additional reimbursement requirements, penalties, sanctions and fines, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We have incurred substantial debt, which could impair our flexibility and access to capital and adversely affect our financial position, and our business would be adversely affected if we are unable to service our debt obligations.
To continue to grow our business, we will need to commit substantial resources, which could result in future losses or otherwise limit our opportunities or affect our ability to operate and grow our business.

NOTE REGARDING COMPANY REFERENCE
In this report, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, all references to “Jazz Pharmaceuticals,” “Jazz,” “the registrant,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc and its consolidated subsidiaries.
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PART I
Item 1.Business
Overview
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc is a global biopharmaceutical company whose purpose is to innovate to transform the lives of patients and their families. We are dedicated to developing life-changing medicines for people with serious diseases - often with limited or no therapeutic options. We have a diverse portfolio of marketed medicines and novel product candidates, from early- to late-stage development, in neuroscience and oncology. Within these therapeutic areas, we strive to identify new options for patients by actively exploring small molecules and biologics, and through innovative delivery technologies and cannabinoid science.
Our strategy for growth is rooted in executing commercial launches and ongoing commercialization initiatives; advancing robust research and development, or R&D, programs and delivering impactful clinical results; effectively deploying capital to strengthen the prospects of achieving our short- and long-term goals through strategic corporate development; and delivering strong financial performance. We focus on patient populations with high unmet needs. We identify and develop differentiated therapies for these patients that we expect will be long-lived assets and that we can support with an efficient commercialization model. In addition, we leverage our efficient, scalable operating model and integrated capabilities across our global infrastructure to effectively reach patients around the world.
In January 2022, we announced our Vision 2025, which aims to deliver sustainable growth and enhanced value, driving our continued transformation to an innovative, high-growth global pharmaceutical leader. The three core components of our Vision 2025 focus on commercial execution, pipeline productivity and operational excellence.
Our lead marketed products are:
Neuroscience
Xywav® (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium oxybates) oral solution, a product approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in July 2020 and launched in the U.S. in November 2020 for the treatment of cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness, or EDS, in patients with narcolepsy seven years of age and older, and also approved by FDA in August 2021 for the treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia, or IH, in adults and launched in the U.S. in November 2021. Xywav contains 92% less sodium than Xyrem®;
Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution, a product approved by FDA and distributed in the U.S. for the treatment of cataplexy or EDS in patients with narcolepsy seven years of age and older; Jazz also markets Xyrem in Canada for the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. Xyrem is also approved and distributed in the European Union, or EU (EU market authorizations include Northern Ireland), Great Britain and other markets through a licensing agreement; and
Epidiolex® (cannabidiol) oral solution, a product approved by FDA and launched in the U.S. in 2018 by GW Pharmaceuticals plc, or GW, and currently indicated for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or LGS, Dravet syndrome, or DS, or tuberous sclerosis complex, or TSC, in patients one year of age or older; in the EU and Great Britain (where it is marketed as Epidyolex®) and other markets listed in the table below, it is approved for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with LGS or DS, in conjunction with clobazam (EU and Great Britain only), in patients 2 years of age and older and for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with TSC in patients 2 years of age and older.
Oncology
Zepzelca® (lurbinectedin), a product approved by FDA in June 2020 under FDA's accelerated approval pathway and launched in the U.S. in July 2020 for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer, or SCLC, with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy; in Canada, Zepzelca received conditional approval in September 2021 for the treatment of adults with Stage III or metastatic SCLC, who have progressed on or after platinum-containing therapy;
Rylaze® (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn), a product approved by FDA in June 2021 and launched in the U.S. in July 2021 for use as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL, or lymphoblastic lymphoma, or LBL, in adults and pediatric patients aged one month or older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase;
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Vyxeos® (daunorubicin and cytarabine) liposome for injection, a product approved in the U.S., Canada, EU, Great Britain and other markets listed in the table below (marketed as Vyxeos® liposomal in the EU, Great Britain and other markets) for the treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia, or t-AML, or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, or AML-MRC. An expanded indication was granted in the U.S. for the treatment of newly diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC in pediatric patients aged 1 year and older; and
Defitelio® (defibrotide sodium), a product approved in the U.S. and Brazil for the treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease, or VOD, with renal or pulmonary dysfunction following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or HSCT, and in Japan for the treatment of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (hepatic VOD). It is currently approved in the EU, Great Britain and other markets listed in the table below for the treatment of severe hepatic VOD, also known as sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, or SOS, in HSCT therapy. It is indicated in adults and pediatric patients over 1 month of age.
In 2022, consistent with our strategy, we continued to focus on research and development activities within our neuroscience and oncology therapeutic areas. For a summary of our ongoing research and development activities, see “Business—Research and Development” in this Part I, Item 1.
Our Commercialized Products
Neuroscience
Our Oxybate Products. We are the global leader in the development and commercialization of oxybate therapy for patients with sleep disorders. Xyrem was approved by FDA in 2002 and has become a standard of care for treating EDS and cataplexy in narcolepsy. In 2020, we received FDA approval for Xywav for the treatment of cataplexy or EDS, in patients seven years of age and older with narcolepsy. Xywav is an oxybate therapy that contains 92% less sodium than Xyrem. In August 2021, Xywav became the first and only therapy approved by FDA for the treatment of IH in adults.
Xywav. In July 2020, FDA approved Xywav for the treatment of both cataplexy and EDS in patients with narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a chronic, debilitating neurological disorder characterized by EDS and the inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally. Since there is not currently a cure for narcolepsy and we believe there is unmet need in the patient population for long-term disease management, we believe that Xywav represents an important new therapeutic option for patients with this sleep disorder. Narcolepsy affects an estimated one in 2,000 people in the U.S., with symptoms typically appearing in childhood. There are five primary symptoms of narcolepsy, including EDS, cataplexy, disrupted nighttime sleep, sleep-related hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. While patients with narcolepsy may not experience all five symptoms, EDS, an essential symptom of narcolepsy, is present in all narcolepsy patients and is characterized by chronic, pervasive sleepiness as well as sudden irresistible and overwhelming urges to sleep (inadvertent naps and sleep attacks). Narcolepsy may affect many areas of life, including limiting a patient’s education and employment opportunities, and may lead to difficulties at work, school, or in daily life activities like driving, operating machinery or caring for children. Patients with narcolepsy may also suffer from significant medical comorbidities, including cardiac disorders, depression, suicide risk, anxiety, diseases of the digestive system and respiratory diseases.
Cataplexy, the sudden loss of muscle tone with retained consciousness, can be one of the most debilitating symptoms of narcolepsy. Cataplexy is present in approximately 70% of patients with narcolepsy. Cataplexy can range from slight weakness or a drooping of facial muscles to the complete loss of muscle tone resulting in postural collapse. It may also impair a patient’s vision or speech. Cataplexy is often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, anger or surprise. Cataplexy can severely impair a patient’s quality of life and ability to function.
Narcolepsy patients, by virtue of their diagnosis, are at increased risk of cardiovascular events and disease, and the impact of sodium on cardiovascular health is well established. There is also extensive scientific evidence that reducing sodium consumption, which is a modifiable risk factor, is associated with clinically meaningful reductions in blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, we believe that reducing sodium intake compared to the standard of care by 92% each and every day is a significant advancement for these patients. The 92% reduction of sodium translates into a reduction of approximately 1,000 to 1,500 milligrams per day for a patient prescribed Xyrem, depending on the dose. Our commercial efforts with respect to Xywav are focused on educating patients and physicians about the lifelong impact of high sodium intake, and how the use of Xywav enables them to address what is a modifiable risk factor. When patients transition from Xyrem to Xywav, Xywav treatment is initiated at the same dose and regimen (gram for gram) and titrated as needed based on efficacy and tolerability. The label for Xywav, unlike Xyrem, does not include a warning to prescribers to monitor patients sensitive to sodium intake, including patients with heart failure, hypertension or renal impairment.
Our internal market research finds that health care providers and patients who understand the increased risk of cardiovascular disease faced by narcolepsy patients and who have been educated on the meaningful reduction in sodium from Xyrem to Xywav cite that meaningful reduction as a key reason for prescribing or starting on Xywav. In June 2021, FDA recognized seven years of Orphan Drug Exclusivity, or ODE, for Xywav in narcolepsy through July 21, 2027, stating that
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Xywav is clinically superior to Xyrem by means of greater safety because Xywav provides a greatly reduced chronic sodium burden compared to Xyrem. FDA's summary also stated that “the differences in the sodium content of the two products at the recommended doses will be clinically meaningful in reducing cardiovascular morbidity in a substantial proportion of patients for whom the drug is indicated.” We view the adoption of Xywav in narcolepsy as a positive indication that physicians and patients appreciate the benefits of a lower sodium oxybate option.
In approving Xywav, FDA approved a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, to cover both Xywav and Xyrem. The Xywav and Xyrem REMS has the same requirements for both products and both products are also distributed by the central pharmacy through exclusive agreements described more fully below.
On August 12, 2021, FDA approved Xywav for the treatment of IH in adults. Xywav is the first and only FDA-approved therapy to treat IH. We initiated the U.S. commercial launch of Xywav for the treatment of IH in adults on November 1, 2021. In January 2022, FDA recognized seven years of ODE for Xywav in IH through August 12, 2028. IH is a debilitating neurologic sleep disorder characterized by chronic EDS (the inability to stay awake and alert during the day resulting in the irrepressible need to sleep or unplanned lapses into sleep or drowsiness), severe sleep inertia, and prolonged and non-restorative nighttime sleep. Although there are overlapping clinical features with other conditions, including narcolepsy, IH has its own specific diagnostic criteria. IH can significantly affect social, educational and occupational functioning. An estimated 37,000 people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with IH and are actively seeking healthcare.
We commenced the U.S. launch in November 2020. To date, we have entered into agreements for Xywav with all three major pharmacy benefit managers, or PBMs, in the U.S. and various other entities and have achieved benefit coverage for Xywav in both narcolepsy and IH indications for approximately 90% of commercial lives.
We have seen strong adoption of Xywav in narcolepsy since its launch in November 2020 and increasing adoption in IH since its launch in November 2021. In 2022, net product sales of Xywav were $958.4 million, which represented 26% of our total net product sales for the year. There were approximately 10,300 active patients on Xywav exiting the fourth quarter of 2022, including approximately 8,550 active patients with narcolepsy and approximately 1,750 active patients with IH. With respect to Xywav and Xyrem in the aggregate, the average number of active oxybate patients on therapy was approximately 18,000 in the fourth quarter of 2022.
Xyrem. Xyrem was approved in the U.S. for the treatment of cataplexy in adult patients with narcolepsy in 2002 and was approved for EDS in adult patients with narcolepsy in 2005. In October 2018, Xyrem was also approved in the U.S. for the treatment of cataplexy or EDS in pediatric narcolepsy patients ages seven and older. In its updated 2021 treatment guidelines, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine gives sodium oxybate a strong recommendation for the treatment of narcolepsy in adults. To support the development and commercialization of Xyrem internationally, we have a license and distribution agreement with UCB Pharma Limited, or UCB, across other countries. This agreement provides UCB and its affiliates with the sole right to commercialize Xyrem in exclusive territories for all indications.
In 2022, net product sales of Xyrem were $1.0 billion, which represented 28% of our total net product sales for the year.
Xywav and Xyrem REMS. Our marketing, sales and distribution of Xywav and Xyrem in the U.S. are subject to a REMS, which is required by FDA to mitigate the risks of serious adverse outcomes resulting from inappropriate prescribing, abuse, misuse and diversion of Xywav and Xyrem. Under this REMS, all of the Xywav and Xyrem sold in the U.S. must be dispensed and shipped directly to patients or caregivers through a central pharmacy. Xywav and Xyrem may not be stocked in retail pharmacies. Physicians and patients must complete an enrollment process prior to fulfillment of Xywav and Xyrem prescriptions, and each physician and patient must receive materials concerning the serious risks associated with Xywav and Xyrem before the physician can prescribe, or a patient can receive, the product. The central certified pharmacy must monitor and report instances of patient or prescriber behavior giving rise to a reasonable suspicion of abuse, misuse or diversion of Xywav and Xyrem, and maintains enrollment and prescription monitoring information in a central database. The central pharmacy ships the product directly to the patient (or caregiver) by a courier service.
We have had exclusive agreements with Express Scripts Specialty Distribution Services, Inc., or ESSDS, the central pharmacy for Xywav and Xyrem, to distribute Xywav and Xyrem in the U.S. and provide patient support services related to Xyrem since 2002. In December 2022, we entered into new agreements with ESSDS with a two-year term. Our current agreements with ESSDS, which expire on December 1, 2024, may be terminated by either party at any time without cause on 180 days’ prior written notice to the other party.
Epidiolex. On May 5, 2021, we acquired the entire issued share capital of GW. As a result, GW became an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. The aggregate consideration for the GW Acquisition was $7.2 billion. We acquired Epidiolex (Epidyolex outside the U.S.) in May 2021 as part of our acquisition of GW, which expanded our growing neuroscience business with a global, high-growth childhood-onset epilepsy franchise. We refer to the acquisition of GW as the GW Acquisition. Epidiolex was approved in the U.S. in June 2018 for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy, LGS and DS, in patients two years of age and older, and subsequently approved in July 2020 for the
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treatment of seizures associated with TSC in patients one year of age and older. FDA also approved the expansion of the prior approved indications, LGS and DS, to patients one year of age and older. The rolling European launch of Epidyolex is also underway following European Commission, or EC, approval in September 2019 for use as adjunctive therapy of seizures associated with LGS or DS, in conjunction with clobazam, for patients two years of age and older. Epidyolex is now launched in all five key European markets: United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain and France. The clobazam restriction is limited to the EU and Great Britain. Epidyolex was also approved for adjunctive therapy in seizures associated with TSC for patients 2 years of age and older in the EU in April 2021 and Great Britain in August 2021, and is approved for this indication in other markets. Outside the U.S. and Europe, Epidiolex/Epidyolex is approved in Israel, Australia and New Zealand. See “Research and Development” below for a discussion of clinical development activities for Epidiolex.
LGS and DS are severe childhood-onset, drug-resistant epilepsy syndromes. LGS and DS affect approximately 35,000-50,000 and approximately 10,000 individuals in the U.S., respectively. TSC is a rare genetic disorder that causes non-malignant tumors to form in many different organs and is a leading cause of genetic epilepsy. TSC affects approximately 50,000 individuals in the U.S. Epidiolex has received ODE to treat seizures associated with LGS and DS through 2025 and TSC through 2027.
Net product sales of Epidiolex/Epidyolex in 2022 were $736.4 million, which represented 20% of our total net product sales for the year.
In addition to our currently-marketed products, we previously marketed Sunosi® (solriamfetol) in the U.S., Europe and Canada. In March 2022, we entered into an agreement to divest Sunosi to Axsome Therapeutics, Inc., or Axsome. In May 2022, we completed the U.S. divestiture of Sunosi to Axsome and in November 2022, we completed the ex-U.S. divestiture. The Sunosi divestiture was intended to enable us to sharpen our focus on our highest strategic priorities. Further, we believed that Axsome is well positioned to deliver access to this important medicine and deliver value to us through anticipated royalties. For more information, see “Sunosi Disposition” in Note 3 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
Oncology
Zepzelca. We acquired U.S. development and commercialization rights to Zepzelca in early 2020, and launched six months thereafter, with an indication for treatment of patients with SCLC with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Our education and promotional efforts are focused on SCLC-treating physicians. We are continuing to raise awareness of Zepzelca across academic and community cancer centers, and believe there are opportunities for further growth in second-line share and overall demand, reflecting the significant unmet need and favorable Zepzelca product profile.
Our exclusive U.S. development and commercialization rights to Zepzelca were acquired through an exclusive license agreement we entered into with Pharma Mar, S.A., or PharmaMar, in December 2019. In October 2020, we entered into an amendment to the license agreement with PharmaMar to expand our exclusive license to include rights to develop and commercialize Zepzelca in Canada. The term of the amended license agreement extends on a licensed product-by-licensed product and country-by-country basis until the latest of: (i) expiration of the last PharmaMar patent covering Zepzelca in that country (subject to certain exclusions), (ii) expiration of regulatory exclusivity for Zepzelca in that country and (iii) 12 years after the first commercial sale of Zepzelca in that country. We have the right to terminate the amended license agreement at will upon a specified notice period, and either party can terminate the amended license agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach or bankruptcy. For a description of additional terms of the amended license agreement, including financial terms, see Note 3, Business Combinations, Asset Acquisitions and Collaborations—License Agreement of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
Zepzelca for injection (4 mg) is approved by FDA to treat adults with metastatic SCLC, with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Zepzelca is an alkylating drug that binds guanine residues within DNA. This triggers a cascade of events that can affect the activity of DNA binding proteins, including some transcription factors, and DNA repair pathways, resulting in disruption of the cell cycle and eventual cell death. Zepzelca was granted orphan drug designation for SCLC by FDA in August 2018. In December 2019, PharmaMar submitted a New Drug Application, or NDA, to FDA for accelerated approval of Zepzelca for relapsed SCLC based on data from a Phase 2 trial, and in February 2020, FDA accepted the NDA for filing with priority review. In June 2020, FDA granted accelerated approval of Zepzelca for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic SCLC with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Zepzelca is approved based on response rate and duration of response. After discussion with FDA, PharmaMar initiated a confirmatory trial in second-line SCLC in December 2021. This is a three-arm trial comparing Zepzelca as either monotherapy or in combination with irinotecan to investigator's choice of irinotecan or topotecan. Data from this trial, if positive, will serve as the confirmatory trial for Zepzelca to secure full approval in the U.S. See “Research and Development” below for a discussion of clinical development activities for Zepzelca.
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In 2022, net product sales of Zepzelca were $269.9 million, which represented 7% of our total net product sales for the year.
Rylaze. Rylaze was approved by FDA in June 2021 under the Real-Time Oncology Review, or RTOR, program, and was launched in the U.S. in July 2021, for use as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of ALL or LBL in pediatric and adult patients one month and older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase. Rylaze is the only recombinant erwinia asparaginase manufactured product that maintains a clinically meaningful level of serum asparaginase activity throughout the entire intended course of treatment. We developed Rylaze with the goal of addressing the needs of patients and health care providers for an innovative, high-quality erwinia asparaginase with reliable supply. Rylaze has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of patients with ALL or LBL. See “Research and Development” below for a discussion of clinical development activities for Rylaze.
The initial approved recommended dosage of Rylaze was for an intramuscular, or IM, administration of 25 mg/m2 every 48 hours. In November 2022, FDA approved a supplemental Biologics License Application, or sBLA, for a Monday/Wednesday/Friday, or M/W/F IM dosing schedule. See “Research and Development” below for a discussion of clinical development activities for Rylaze.
In 2022, net product sales of Rylaze were $281.7 million, which represented 8% of our total net product sales for the year.
Vyxeos. In 2017, we launched Vyxeos in the U.S. after FDA approved our NDA for the treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC. In August 2018, the EC granted marketing authorization for Vyxeos and, as part of our rolling launch of Vyxeos in Europe, we are continuing to make pricing and reimbursement submissions in European countries. In March 2021, FDA approved a revised label to include a new indication to treat newly-diagnosed t-AML, or AML-MRC, in pediatric patients aged one year and older. AML is a rapidly progressing and life-threatening blood cancer that begins in the bone marrow, which produces most of the body's new blood cells. AML cells crowd out healthy cells and move aggressively into the bloodstream to spread cancer to other parts of the body. AML is a relatively rare disease representing about 1% of all new cancer cases and has the lowest survival rate of any form of leukemia. Patients with newly diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC may have a particularly poor prognosis.
We have a number of ongoing development activities and continue to expand into new markets internationally. See “Research and Development” below for a discussion of clinical development activities for Vyxeos.
In 2022, Vyxeos product sales were $128.0 million, which represented 4% of our total net product sales for the year.
Defitelio. Defitelio is the first and only FDA approved treatment for patients with VOD, a potentially life-threatening complication of HSCT. In addition, it is currently approved in the EU, Great Britain and other markets. Stem cell transplantation is a frequently used treatment modality for hematologic cancers and other conditions in both adults and children. Certain conditioning regimens used as part of HSCT can damage the cells that line the hepatic vessels, which is thought to lead to the development of VOD, also referred to as SOS, a blockage of the small vessels in the liver, that can lead to liver failure and potentially result in significant dysfunction in other organs such as the kidneys and lungs. Severe VOD is the most extreme form of VOD and is associated with multi-organ failure and high rates of morbidity and mortality. An analysis of retrospective data, prospective cohort studies and clinical trials published between 1979 and 2007 found that the 100-day mortality rate in severe VOD cases is greater than 80%.
In 2022, Defitelio/defibrotide product sales were $194.3 million, which represented 5% of our total net product sales for the year.
Revenue Diversification
As part of our objective to reduce business risk by diversifying our revenue sources, we have been actively seeking to expand our commercial portfolio thorough a combination of launching internally developed therapies and therapies or commercial assets acquired through corporate development. In 2018, 75% of net product sales were generated by one product, Xyrem. For the year ended December 31, 2022, 63% of net product sales were generated from products that we launched or acquired since 2019, including Xywav, Epidiolex, Zepzelca, Rylaze, Sunosi1 and Sativex2.

1 Net product sales of Sunosi U.S. are included until the date of divestment to Axsome on May 9, 2022.
2 Sativex (nabiximols) is a product approved outside the U.S. for the treatment of adult patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication. We continue to support the availability of Sativex in the 29 markets outside the U.S. where it is approved.
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Our lead marketed products, listed below, are approved in countries around the world to improve patient care.
ProductIndication(s)Initial Approval DateMarket(s)
NEUROSCIENCE
Xywav® (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium oxybates)
Treatment of cataplexy or EDS in patients seven years of age and older with narcolepsy.


Treatment of IH in adults.

July 2020



August 2021

U.S.



U.S.
Xyrem® (sodium oxybate)
Treatment of cataplexy or EDS in patients seven years of age and older with narcolepsy.

For the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.

Treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adult patients, adolescents and children from age of 7 years.

July 2002


August 2005



October 2005
U.S.


Canada


EU, Great Britain, other markets (through licensing agreement)
Epidiolex® (cannabidiol)






Epidyolex® (cannabidiol)
Treatment of seizures associated with LGS, DS or TSC, in patients 1 year of age and older.

For adjunctive therapy of seizures associated with LGS or DS, in conjunction with clobazam, for patients 2 years of age and older.*

For adjunctive therapy of seizures associated with TSC for patients 2 years of age and older.
June 2018



September 2019




April 2021
U.S.



EU, Great Britain, Israel, Australia and New Zealand



EU, Great Britain and Israel
ONCOLOGY
Zepzelca® (lurbinectedin)
Treatment of adult patients with metastatic SCLC, with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy.

Treatment of adults with Stage III or metastatic SCLC who have progressed on or after platinum-containing therapy.
June 2020



September 2021
U.S. (licensed from PharmaMar)**


Canada (licensed from PharmaMar)***
Rylaze® (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-
rywn
A component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of ALL, and LBL, in adult and pediatric patients 1 month or older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.

A component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of ALL and LBL, in adults and pediatric patients 1 year or older who have developed hypersensitivity to
E. coli-derived asparaginase.
June 2021

September 2022
U.S.

Canada
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Vyxeos® (daunorubicin and cytarabine) liposome for injection


Vyxeos® liposomal 44 mg/100 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Vyxeos® Daunorubicin and cytarabine liposome for injection Powder, 44 mg daunorubicin and 100 mg cytarabine per vial, intravenous infusion
Treatment of newly-diagnosed therapy-related t-AML or AML-MRC in adults and pediatric patients one year and older.

Treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC.



Treatment of adults with newly diagnosed therapy-related t-AML or AML with AML-MRC.
August 2017




August 2018





April 2021

U.S.




EU, Great Britain, Switzerland, Israel, Australia, South Korea



Canada

Defitelio® (defibrotide)



Defitelio® (defibrotide sodium)



Defitelio® (defibrotide sodium)



Defitelio® (defibrotide)
Treatment of severe hepatic VOD, also known as SOS, following HSCT therapy.

Treatment of adult and pediatric patients with hepatic VOD, also known as SOS, with renal or pulmonary dysfunction following HSCT.

Treatment of severe hepatic VOD, also known as SOS, following HSCT therapy.

Treatment of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (hepatic VOD).
October 2013




March 2016



July 2017




June 2019
EU, Great Britain, Switzerland, Israel, Australia, South Korea, Saudi Arabia

U.S., Brazil



Canada




Japan
*The Clobazam restriction limited to EU and Great Britain
**Accelerated approval received from FDA
***Conditional approval received from Health Canada
Research and Development
A key aspect of our strategy is our continued investment in expanding our research and development organization and initiatives. We actively explore new options for patients including novel compounds, small molecule advancements, biologics and innovative delivery technologies. We are focused on research and development activities within our neuroscience and oncology therapeutic areas, such as our expansion into movement disorders and solid tumors, and exploring and potentially investing in adjacent therapeutic areas.
Our research and development activities encompass all stages of development and currently include clinical testing of new product candidates and activities related to clinical improvements of, or additional indications for, our existing marketed products. We also have active preclinical programs for novel therapies, including precision medicines in hematology and oncology, and our proprietary GW Cannabinoid Platform. We are increasingly leveraging our growing internal research and development function, and we have also entered into collaborations with third parties for the research and development of innovative early-stage product candidates and have supported additional investigator-sponsored trials, or ISTs, that are anticipated to generate additional data related to our products. We also seek out investment opportunities in support of development of early- and mid-stage technologies in our therapeutic areas and adjacencies. We have a number of licensing and collaboration agreements with third parties, including biotechnology companies, academic institutions and research-based companies and institutions, related to preclinical and clinical research and development activities in hematology and in precision oncology, as well as in neuroscience.
Our current and planned development activities in our neuroscience therapeutic area are focused on an additional indication for Epidiolex, and advancing novel therapies, including our product candidates suvecaltamide (JZP385), JZP150 and JZP441.
Epidiolex. Our neuroscience R&D efforts include the initiation of a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of Epidiolex for the treatment of Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures, or EMAS, also known as Doose syndrome, in August 2022. This trial is designed to evaluate Epidiolex in a fourth childhood-onset epileptic encephalopathy with high unmet need. EMAS is
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characterized by generalized myoclonic-atonic seizures, and this trial is designed to provide the first randomized, controlled clinical data with Epidiolex in this syndrome type. Seizure types including atonic, tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic, and partial onset seizures are seen in LGS, DS and TSC. We enrolled the first patient in a Phase 3 trial of Epidyolex for LGS, DS and TSC in Japan in October 2022.
Suvecaltamide. Suvecaltamide (JZP385) is a highly selective modulator of T-type calcium channels currently in development for the potential treatment of essential tremor, or ET. ET is the most common pathological movement disorder, and there have been no new approved therapies in more than 50 years. We acquired suvecaltamide in our acquisition of Cavion, Inc., or Cavion, a clinical-stage biotechnology company, in August 2019. We initiated a Phase 2b clinical trial of suvecaltamide in December 2021. In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we are evaluating the safety and efficacy of suvecaltamide in the treatment of adults with moderate to severe ET. The primary efficacy outcome measure is the change from baseline to Week 12 on the Tremor Research Group Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS) composite outcome score, which represents items from the TETRAS-Activities of Daily Living and TETRAS-Performance Subscale, and measures the functional impact due to tremor. Additionally, in November 2022, we initiated a Phase 2 trial of suvecaltamide in patients with Parkinson's disease tremor.
JZP150. JZP150 is a fatty acid amide hydrolase, or FAAH, inhibitor program for the potential treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, and associated symptoms. PTSD affects up to 8% of adults during their lifetime, and there are limited treatment options available. In October 2020, we entered into an asset purchase and exclusive license agreement with SpringWorks Therapeutics, Inc., or SpringWorks, under which we acquired SpringWorks’ FAAH inhibitor program, including an assignment of SpringWorks’ proprietary FAAH inhibitor PF-04457845, or PF-’845, now named JZP150. We initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial of JZP150 for PTSD in December 2021. In this trial, we are evaluating the safety and efficacy of JZP150 in the treatment of adults with PTSD as measured by improvement in the Clinician Administered Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale (CAPS-5) Total Symptom Severity Score, a validated clinical instrument for assessing the severity of PTSD symptoms.
JZP441. JZP441 is a potent, highly selective oral orexin-2 receptor agonist with potential application for the treatment of narcolepsy, IH and other sleep disorders. In May 2022, we announced that we had entered into a licensing agreement with Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd, or Sumitomo, to acquire exclusive development and commercialization rights in the U.S., Europe and other territories for DSP-0187, now referred to as JZP441. In November 2022, we initiated a Phase 1 development program to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of JZP441 in sleep-deprived healthy volunteers. Our licensor, Sumitomo, initiated a Phase 1 trial in Japan in November 2021 to evaluate safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of JZP441 in healthy volunteers.
On June 28, 2022, we announced the nabiximols Phase 3 RELEASE MSS1 trial in multiple sclerosis (MS)-related spasticity did not meet the primary endpoint of change in Lower Limb Muscle Tone-6 between baseline and Day 21, as measured by the Modified Ashworth Scale. The analysis of the MSS1 trial has been completed. We have assessed the nabiximols program's potential to support regulatory approval for MS-related spasticity in the U.S., as well as in the context of our broader pipeline opportunities, and have made the decision to discontinue the program. Sativex (nabiximols) was approved outside the U.S. for the treatment of MS-related spasticity based on a comprehensive clinical trial program, including multiple late-stage randomized, controlled trials completed in Europe. We continue to support the availability of Sativex in the 29 markets outside the U.S. where it is approved. We remain committed to the GW Cannabinoid Platform and are working to advance multiple early-stage cannabinoid programs with the potential to address critical unmet patient needs.
Our current and planned research and development activities in our oncology therapeutic area are focused on Zepzelca, including in combination with other therapeutic agents, Rylaze, Zanidatamab, Vyxeos, JZP815 and the research and development of new product candidates through our external collaborations.
Zepzelca. Within our oncology R&D program, there is a robust development plan being executed for Zepzelca.
In collaboration with F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, or Roche, we have initiated a Phase 3 pivotal clinical trial in first-line extensive stage SCLC of Zepzelca in combination with Tecentriq® (atezolizumab). After discussion with FDA, our licensor PharmaMar initiated a confirmatory trial in second-line SCLC in December 2021. This is a three-arm trial comparing Zepzelca as either monotherapy or in combination with irinotecan to investigator's choice of irinotecan or topotecan. Data from either the first-line trial of Zepzelca in combination with Tecentriq or the PharmaMar trial could serve to confirm clinical benefit of Zepzelca and support full approval in the U.S.
We initiated a Phase 2 basket trial in the first quarter of 2022 to explore Zepzelca monotherapy in patients with select advanced or metastatic solid tumors. Cohorts will include advanced urothelial cancer, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, or PD-NECs, and homologous recombination deficient, or HRD, cancers. In addition, we have initiated a Phase 4 observational study to collect real world safety and outcome data in adult Zepzelca monotherapy patients with SCLC who progress on or after prior platinum-containing chemotherapy.
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Rylaze. The initial approved recommended dosage of Rylaze was for an IM administration of 25 mg/m2 every 48 hours. In November 2022, FDA approved a sBLA with a M/W/F IM dosing schedule. In April 2022, we submitted an additional sBLA for intravenous, or IV, administration. In February 2023, we received a complete response letter from FDA requesting additional clinical data on the IV administration of Rylaze. There is no impact on the approved product labeling for Rylaze IM administration. We also submitted a Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, to the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, in May 2022 for M/W/F and every 48-hour dosing schedules and IV and IM administration.
Zanidatamab. Zanidatamab is an investigational HER2-targeted bispecific antibody. In October 2022, we entered into an exclusive licensing agreement with a subsidiary of Zymeworks Inc., or Zymeworks, providing us the right to acquire the development and commercialization rights to Zanidatamab across all indications in the U.S., Europe, Japan and all other territories except for those Asia/Pacific territories previously licensed by Zymeworks, and such agreement became effective on November 29, 2022. In December 2022, we exercised the option to continue with the exclusive development and commercialization rights to zanidatamab. In collaboration with Zymeworks, zanidatamab is currently being evaluated in Phase 1, Phase 2, and pivotal clinical trials as a treatment for patients with HER2-expressing cancers. These trials include a Phase 2 trial examining zanidatamab in combination with chemotherapy, in first-line patients with HER2-expressing metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, or GEA, a Phase 3 randomized clinical trial, evaluating zanidatamab in combination with chemotherapy plus or minus tislelizumab as a first-line treatment for HER2-expressing GEA and a pivotal Phase 2 clinical trial evaluating zanidatamab monotherapy in patients with previously treated advanced or metastatic HER2-amplified biliary tract cancers, or BTC.
Vyxeos. Our Vyxeos clinical development strategy is designed to target potential new patient segments across the AML landscape and to generate clinical data on Vyxeos when used in combination with other therapeutic agents. As reflected in the table below, we are pursuing this strategy by sponsoring clinical trials, working with cooperative groups who are conducting clinical trials, and partnering with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, or MD Anderson. In August 2018, we announced a five-year collaboration with MD Anderson to evaluate potential treatment options for hematologic malignancies, with a near-term focus on Vyxeos, and shortly thereafter, commenced development activities under this collaboration. In addition, there are multiple ongoing ISTs studying Vyxeos.
JZP815. JZP815 is a pan-RAF inhibitor for the treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies that contain mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase, or MAPK, pathway. In October 2022, we enrolled our first patient in a Phase 1 study to investigate the safety, dosing, and initial antitumor activity of JZP815 in participants with advanced or metastatic solid tumors harboring alterations in the MAPK pathway.
CombiPlex Platform. We are also evaluating the use of our CombiPlex delivery technology platform in a number of therapeutic formulations and combinations in oncology as part of our internal oncology research and development activities. CombiPlex enables the design and rapid evaluation of various combinations of therapies to deliver enhanced anti-cancer activity by identifying an optimal synergistic ratio of drugs in vitro and fixing this ratio in a nanoscale delivery complex that maintains and then coordinates the release of the synergistic combination after administration. CombiPlex utilizes two proprietary nanoscale delivery platforms: liposomes to control the release and distribution of water-soluble drugs and drugs that are both water- and fat-soluble (amphipathic), and nanoparticles to control the release and distribution of non-water-soluble (hydrophobic) drugs.
Through third parties, we are also pursuing preclinical and clinical research and development activities in hematology and in precision oncology under a number of licensing and collaboration agreements, including with:
Codiak BioSciences, Inc., or Codiak, for an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to develop, manufacture and commercialize potential therapeutic candidates directed at up to three targets to be developed using Codiak's engEx™ precision engineering platform for exosome therapeutics;
Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, or Ligand, for rights to JZP341, an early-stage long-acting erwinia asparaginase;
XL-protein GmbH, or XLp, for rights to use XLp’s PASylation® technology to extend the plasma half-life of selected asparaginase product candidates;
Redx Pharma plc, or Redx, for preclinical collaboration activities related to the Ras/Raf/MAP kinase pathway program that we purchased from Redx; and
Werewolf Therapeutics, Inc., or Werewolf, for an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to develop, manufacture and commercialize Werewolf's investigational WTX-613, now referred to as JZP898. JZP898 is a differentiated, conditionally-activated interferon alpha, or IFNα, INDUKINE™ molecule.
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Below is a summary of our key ongoing and planned development projects related to our products and pipeline and their corresponding current stages of development:

Product CandidatesDescription
NEUROSCIENCE
Phase 3
EpidiolexEMAS, also known as Doose syndrome (ongoing trial)
LGS, TSC and DS (ongoing trial in Japan)
Phase 2b
Suvecaltamide (JZP385)
ET (ongoing trial)
Phase 2
Suvecaltamide (JZP385)
Parkinson's disease tremor (ongoing trial)
JZP150
PTSD (ongoing trial)
JZP541Irritability associated with autism spectrum disorders, or ASD (planned trial)
Additional cannabinoidsASD (ongoing trial)
Phase 1
JZP324Oxybate extended-release formulation (planned trial)
JZP441*Potent, highly selective oral orexin-2 receptor agonist (ongoing trials in Japan and the U.S.)
Additional cannabinoidsNeonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (completed study)
Neuropsychiatry targets (ongoing trial)
Preclinical
Undisclosed targetsNeuroscience
Cannabinoids
ONCOLOGY
Regulatory Review
RylazeALL/LBL
FDA approval in June 2021; approval for M/W/F IM dosing schedule in November 2022; received complete response letter from FDA requesting additional data on the IV administration of Rylaze in February 2023; submitted MAA to EMA in May 2022
Phase 3
ZepzelcaFirst-line extensive stage SCLC in combination with Tecentriq (collaboration with Roche) (ongoing trial)
Confirmatory Study (Pharma Mar study) (ongoing trial)
ZanidatamabHER2-positive gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, or GEA (ongoing trial)
VyxeosAML or high-risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or MDS (AML18) (cooperative group studies) (ongoing trial) Newly diagnosed adults with standard- and high-risk AML (AML Study Group cooperative group study) (ongoing study) Newly diagnosed pediatric patients with AML (Children’s Oncology Group cooperative group study) (ongoing trial)
Pivotal Phase 2
ZanidatamabPreviously treated, advanced HER2-expressing biliary tract cancer, or BTC (ongoing trial)
Phase 2
ZepzelcaBasket trial including urothelial cancer, PD-NECs and HRD cancers (ongoing trial)
VyxeosHigh-risk MDS (European Myelodysplastic Syndromes) (cooperative group study) (ongoing trial)
Newly diagnosed untreated patients with high-risk AML (cooperative group study) (planned trial)
Vyxeos + venetoclaxDe novo or relapsed/refractory, or R/R, AML (MD Anderson collaboration study) (ongoing trial)
ZanidatamabHER2-expressing GEA, BTC or colorectal cancer in combination with standard first-line chemotherapy (ongoing trial)
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Phase 2a
ZanidatamabPreviously treated HER2+HR+ breast cancer in combination with palbociclib
Phase 1b/2
ZanidatamabFirst line breast cancer and GEA (BeiGene trial) (ongoing trial)
ZanidatamabHER2-expressing breast cancer in combination with ALX148 (ongoing trial)
Vyxeos + other approved therapiesFirst-line, fit AML (ongoing trial)

Low intensity therapy for first-line, unfit AML (ongoing trial)
Phase 1
VyxeosLow intensity dosing for higher risk MDS (MD Anderson collaboration study) (ongoing trial)
Vyxeos + other approved therapiesR/R AML or hypomethylating agent failure MDS (MD Anderson collaboration study) (ongoing trial)
JZP815Raf and Ras mutant tumors (acquired from Redx) (ongoing trial)
ZanidatamabIn previously treated metastatic HER2-expressing cancers in combination with select antineoplastic therapies (ongoing trial)
JZP341 (long-acting erwinia asparaginase)
Solid tumors (licensed from Ligand) (ongoing trial)
Preclinical
CombiPlex®
Hematology/oncology exploratory activities
JZP898Conditionally-activated IFNα INDUKINE™ molecule
Undisclosed targetRas/Raf/MAP kinase pathway (collaboration with Redx)
Oncology
Exosome targets (up to 3)Hematological malignancies/solid tumors (collaboration with Codiak)
Undisclosed targetsOncology
*Also known as DSP-0187

Commercialization Activities
We have direct Jazz commercial operations in the U.S., Europe, Australia and Canada and a network of commercial distributors that represent our commercial interests in other key markets across the globe. In the U.S., our products are commercialized through a number of teams, including a team of experienced, trained sales professionals who provide education and promote Xywav, Xyrem, Epidiolex, Zepzelca, Rylaze, Vyxeos and Defitelio to healthcare providers in the appropriate specialties for each product, a team that interacts with payors and institutions to ensure access and coverage for the products, and a team that distributes the products throughout the U.S. healthcare system (wholesalers, pharmacies, hospitals, and community and academic institutions) and provides patient services.
In Canada and in approved markets in Europe where we commercialize Defitelio and Vyxeos, we have a field force of hematology sales specialists. In markets where these products either are not approved or are unable to be promoted under local regulation, we have medical affairs personnel responsible for responding to medical information requests and for providing information consistent with local treatment protocols with respect to such products. In certain European markets, we have a sales team and a team of medical science liaisons supporting our rolling launch of Epidyolex. In addition, we directly market Xyrem and Zepzelca in Canada.
Other commercial activities include marketing related services, pricing and access, industry analytics and insights, distribution services and commercial support services. We employ third party vendors, such as advertising agencies, market research firms and suppliers of marketing and other sales support-related services, to assist with our commercial activities. We also provide reimbursement and patient assistance support for our U.S. markets.
We intend to scale the size of our sales force as appropriate to effectively reach our target audience in the specialty markets in which we currently operate. We promote Zepzelca, Rylaze, Vyxeos and Defitelio to many hematology and oncology specialists who operate in the same hospitals and outpatient clinical sites, and we believe that we benefit from operational synergies from this overlap. We expect that a potential launch of Rylaze in Europe, if approved, would be executed primarily through our existing team. Continued growth of our current marketed products and the launch of any future products may require a reevaluation of our field force and support organization in and outside the U.S.
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Human Capital Management and Environment, Health and Safety
Jazz is committed to creating a company where the culture embodies our corporate purpose to innovate to transform the lives of patients and reflects our key goals: (1) be a great place to work; and (2) live our core values of Integrity, Collaboration, Passion, Innovation, and Pursuit of Excellence.
Employee Demographics. As of February 17, 2023, Jazz employed approximately 2,800 people worldwide, of which approximately 48% were employed in the U.S. and approximately 52% were employed outside the U.S. primarily in the U.K., Ireland and across the European Union, or EU. As an innovative biopharmaceutical company, we have over 700 full-time employees — representing approximately 25% of our global workforce — supporting our research and development activities. We consider our employee relations to be very good.
Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Belonging. We make diversity, equity, inclusion and belonging, or DEIB, a priority because it is a key to unlocking the potential of our people and living our core values.
We strive to create a workplace culture that fosters the ability of our employees to be their authentic selves and contribute boldly. We aspire to have multi-dimensional diversity through our entire Jazz workforce. We seek to surround underrepresented groups with allies to enable all employees to thrive equitably. Our board of directors and management team are committed to fostering DEIB in all parts of our business.
Our DEIB strategy includes: (1) building a more diverse workforce in terms of gender identity, race, ethnicity and sexual orientation and that represent unique backgrounds, experiences, thoughts and talents; (2) investing in developing our diverse talent and driving equity; and (3) and creating a culture of inclusion and belonging.
We designed our Employee DEIB program to empower employees to guide and support our strategy and programs related to hiring diverse talent and using education and communication to continue fostering an inclusive environment.
We also have a DEIB Delegation, a committee of employees focused on helping to embed DEIB into all we do. Jazz ConcERTos, our employee resource teams, are self-led teams of employee volunteers with diverse backgrounds who come together to promote innovation through inclusion and to increase awareness of all dimensions of diversity. We believe that these groups will contribute positively to Jazz’s culture and business success by working cross-functionally to drive innovation, helping to decrease unconscious bias, and encouraging employees to be their whole selves so they can perform at their best.
We have established goals related to increasing all dimensions of diversity, including representation of females and people of color, particularly at the leadership level (i.e., employees at executive director and above). In this regard, we have made some meaningful progress, as demonstrated by the following, as of February 17, 2023:
50% of our board of directors and 55% of our executive committee is diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity and sexual orientation.
Females represent 54% of our global workforce and 46% at the leadership level (employees at executive director and above).
In the U.S., people of color represent 33% of our U.S. workforce and 19% at the leadership level.
While we are proud of what we have accomplished to date, we remain committed to furthering our goals of providing a diverse, equitable and inclusive workplace that is supportive of all backgrounds, including among our broader leadership.
Employee Engagement. Jazz has a strong employee value proposition anchored in our shared commitment to our purpose to innovate to transform the lives of patients. We are committed to ensuring that we create a rich culture that provides a great place to work for our employees through company-wide efforts to connect employees to our shared purpose and to create an environment where our people feel valued, respected, and able to contribute to their full potential. We believe employee engagement and the power of our employee voices is foundational to strong performance. We have transparent and regular communication channels with our employees consisting of many forms – including all employee meetings, regular communication messages from executive leadership, town halls, top leadership forums, pulse check feedback mechanisms and engagement surveys.
Our employee feedback surveys are designed to help us measure overall employee engagement as well as gather insights on other important areas of our employee experience, and we consistently achieve participation rates above 75%. We consistently have high levels of engagement as measured by feelings of connection to our purpose, as well as Jazz being considered a good place to work by our employees. Our surveys also provide important insight into the areas where we have opportunities to focus, such as decision-making, planning and prioritizing work, and creating a greater sense of belonging. Our survey informs programs and activities aligned with achieving our corporate objectives and achieving our goal of evolving our operating culture for agility and scalability.
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Our Community Beat teams are employee volunteers and representatives that promote company culture and create a sense of belonging and camaraderie among our employees. They foster programs and engagement activities on a local level to draw better connections to employees with the company strategy and business milestones, give back through community service, and promote different health and well-being initiatives.
Growth, Development and Total Rewards. Our talent strategy focuses on attracting the best talent, recognizing and rewarding the performance of our employees as defined by both what they accomplished and how they accomplished it, and continually developing our talent through new experiences and learning opportunities. We believe there is ample opportunity for growth and development at Jazz and there is not a one size fits all approach to growing our talent. We strive to create the best career experience for all of our employees, and encourage them to have regular dialogue with their leadership to create meaningful career development plans.
Our performance management process supports our culture of continual feedback and coaching, and ongoing growth and development through new experiences and learning. We encourage all employees to have an individual development plan to outline learning and growth interests and focus areas.
We leverage several digital learning platforms to provide on demand bite sized learning to all employees that can be accessed 24/7 on a range of topics from leadership, personal effectiveness and well-being. We deliver our “Harmonize” program to all managers to ensure they are grounded in our core Leadership Behaviors we expect all leaders to demonstrate (Instills Trust, Values Differences, Executes through Teams, Develops Talent, Drives Accountability and Provides and Receives Feedback).
In 2022, we continued to develop our top leadership, or Global Leadership Team (top 70 leaders), to build leadership excellence, strengthen relationships, and encourage cross functional collaboration in pursuit of our enterprise strategic goals. Additionally, we continue to focus on diverse early career talent by piloting an executive coaching program to support their development. We continue to offer tuition reimbursement in our major markets aimed at growth and career development.
Our management and leadership teams place significant focus and attention to diversity, capability development, and succession planning for critical roles. We regularly review talent development and succession plans for each of our functions to successfully maintain business operations and develop a pipeline of talent. We have goals concerning employee retention, diversity, and talent development.
We provide our employees with what we believe to be market competitive and locally relevant compensation and benefits that support our overarching strategy to attract, retain and reward highly talented employees in an extremely competitive and dynamic industry.
We strive to create a culture of health and well-being throughout the organization by offering a diverse and customizable set of programs focusing on employee experience, self-care, work-life balance, flexibility and early intervention. In addition to traditional employee benefits, Jazz supports employees and their families through access to a suite of innovative programs that are designed to enhance their physical, financial, emotional and social well-being. In 2022, we introduced an enhanced suite of differentiated global leave and time-off polices to address the needs of our diverse employee population through varying stages of life, including minimum standards for new parent leave (irrespective of gender or how a family is created), family caregiver leave, and bereavement leave. Additionally, in 2022, we launched a new global volunteer day, to provide employees time off with full pay to give back to their communities.
Workplace Safety & Employee Care. Workplace safety is always a top priority for Jazz. To create and sustain a safe and healthy workplace, we have implemented initiatives designed to address risk evaluation, education and training of employees, use of appropriate personal protective equipment, and compliance with relevant national and international health and safety standards.
We leverage an employee support framework focused on Care, Connection, Continuity and Consciousness (our “4Cs”) to enable our employees to live into our values and support one another while doing everything we can to deliver on our patient mission. Important to this framework are new leader expectations and tools given the rise and complexity of emerging employee demands and needs – including more flexibility to address personal needs, a greater connection to understand the whole person and their lives, and more active support surrounding social injustice. We provide productivity and collaboration tools and resources for employees working remotely, including training and toolkits to help leaders effectively lead and manage remote teams; increased flexibility within work schedules and leave programs to support employees caring for children and others; expanded employees assistance and mindfulness programs to help employees and their families manage anxiety, stress, and overall wellbeing; and increased investment in resources focused on inclusion and belonging.
Through direct input from employees, external insights and best practices, we developed our flexible working model and expanded the power of intentional collaboration and our ability to more effectively manage our global and highly distributed team workforce. This approach to work, called “Jazz Remix,” aims to provide eligible employees with the greatest flexibility and agility to globally connect, collaborate, innovate and perform.
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Environment, Health and Safety. Our operations are subject to complex and increasingly stringent environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in the countries where we operate and, in particular, in Ireland, the U.K. and Italy where we have manufacturing facilities. Our manufacturing activities involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of chemicals and solvents. Environmental and health and safety authorities in Ireland, the U.K. and Italy administer laws governing, among other matters, the emission of pollutants into the air (including the workplace), the discharge of pollutants into bodies of water, the storage, use, handling and disposal of hazardous substances, the exposure of persons to hazardous substances, and the general health, safety and welfare of employees and members of the public. In certain cases, such laws, directives and regulations may impose strict liability for pollution of the environment and contamination resulting from spills, disposals or other releases of hazardous substances or waste. Costs, damages and/or fines may result from the presence, investigation and remediation of such contamination at properties currently or formerly owned, leased or operated by us or at off-site locations, including where we have arranged for the disposal of hazardous substances or waste. In addition, we may be subject to third party claims, including for natural resource damages, personal injury and property damage, in connection with such contamination.
We seek to operate our manufacturing facilities in an environmentally responsible way to protect our people, our business, our environment and the local communities in which we operate. In light of the potential impact of our business on the environment, we have adopted a number of internal environmental policies and management systems designed to manage our operations in compliance with applicable laws, directives and regulations on environmental protection and in support of environmental sustainability and local biodiversity. Our environmental policies and management systems include procedures for assessing compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations and reporting incidents of non-compliance to applicable governmental authorities. For example, we have environmental policies governing our manufacturing facilities in Ireland, the U.K. and Italy, which demonstrate our commitment to environmental sustainability and require us to minimize resource use (e.g., energy and water) and waste generation, optimize the use of raw materials, and undertake continuous improvement in environmental performance, with an emphasis on pollution prevention.
Competition
The biopharmaceutical industry is highly competitive. Our products compete, and our product candidates may in the future compete, with currently existing therapies, product candidates currently under development by us and others and/or future product candidates, including new chemical entities that may be safer, more effective or more convenient than our products. Any products that we develop may be commercialized in competitive markets, and our competitors, which include large global pharmaceutical companies and small research-based companies and institutions, may succeed in developing products that render our products obsolete or noncompetitive.
With respect to competition we face from generic drugs, certain U.S. state laws allow for, and in some instances in the absence of specific instructions from the prescribing physician mandate, the dispensing of generic products rather than branded products when a generic version is available. Generic competition often results in decreases in the prices at which branded products can be sold.
In particular, our products and most advanced product candidates face or may face competition as described below:
Xywav and Xyrem. Xywav and Xyrem are approved by FDA and marketed in the U.S. for the treatment of both cataplexy and EDS in both adult and pediatric patients with narcolepsy. We and others have launched products to treat EDS in narcolepsy and may in the future launch products to treat cataplexy in narcolepsy that are competitive with or disrupt the market. An authorized generic version of sodium oxybate launched in January 2023 and in the future we expect competition from other authorized generic and generic versions of sodium oxybate. For a description of generic versions of sodium oxybate and/or new products for the treatment of cataplexy and/or EDS that currently compete or could in the future compete with, or otherwise disrupt the market for, Xywav and Xyrem, as well as a description of our settlement agreements with abbreviated new drug application, or ANDA, filers, see the risk factor under the heading “The introduction of new products in the U.S. market that compete with, or otherwise disrupt the market for, our oxybate products and product candidates would adversely affect sales of our oxybate products and product candidates” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
In addition to generic competition, Xywav and Xyrem may face competition in the future from other new sodium oxybate formulations for treatment of narcolepsy. In July 2022, Avadel Pharmaceuticals plc, or Avadel, announced that it had received tentative FDA approval of FT218, an extended-release formulation of sodium oxybate which uses its proprietary technology for the treatment of EDS and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy, and pending disposition of our REMS patent, Avadel stated that it is seeking to accelerate full approval. For additional information on litigation involving this matter, see “Avadel Patent Litigation” in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. Moreover, Avadel has announced that it has obtained an orphan drug designation from FDA related to its extended-release sodium oxybate formulation. To obtain approval in light of the prior
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approval of our oxybate products and to obtain its own Orphan Drug Exclusivity for FT218 if approved, we believe Avadel will have to show clinical superiority to Xywav, which requires establishing that FT218 has greater effectiveness, greater safety, or otherwise makes a major contribution to patient care when compared to our products. We cannot predict the timing of full approval of Avadel’s sodium oxybate product or how FDA will evaluate any clinical superiority arguments that either we or Avadel may make, but in any event, we expect to face competition from Avadel.
Non-oxybate products intended for the treatment of EDS or cataplexy in narcolepsy or IH (Xywav is the first and only FDA-approved therapy to treat IH), including new market entrants, even if not directly competitive with Xywav or Xyrem, could have the effect of changing treatment regimens and payor or formulary coverage of Xywav or Xyrem in favor of other products, and indirectly materially and adversely affect sales of Xywav and Xyrem. Xywav and Xyrem may face increased competition from new branded entrants to treat EDS or cataplexy in narcolepsy such as pitolisant, which has been approved by FDA for the treatment of both cataplexy and EDS in adult patients with narcolepsy. Pitolisant is also in late-stage development for the treatment of IH. Other companies have announced that they have product candidates in various phases of development to treat the symptoms of narcolepsy, such as Axsome’s reboxetine, and various companies are performing research on orexin agonists for the treatment of sleep disorders, including Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited and Alkermes plc.
In addition, we are also aware that prescribers often prescribe branded or generic medications for cataplexy before prescribing or instead of prescribing oxybate therapy, and that payors often require patients to try such medications before they will cover Xywav or Xyrem, even if they are not approved for this use. For example, prescribers often treat mild cataplexy with drugs that have not been approved by FDA for this indication, including tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. We are also aware that branded or generic stimulants may be prescribed off-label for treatment of EDS in narcolepsy. Wake-promoting agents modafinil and armodafinil, including both branded and generic equivalents, are approved for the treatment of EDS in narcolepsy and other conditions, and may be used in conjunction with or instead of Xywav or Xyrem.
Epidiolex. Patients in the U.S. suffering from seizures associated with DS or LGS are treated with a variety of FDA-approved products, including clobazam, clonazepam, valproate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, rufinamide, topiramate, ethosuximide, and zonisamide. FDA approved Zogenix, Inc.'s low-dose fenfluramine, or Fintepla, in DS in June 2020, and for LGS in March 2022. In March 2022, UCB S.A. announced that it had completed its acquisition of Zogenix. FDA approved Marinus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s ganaxolone for the treatment of seizures associated with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 deficiency disorder in March 2022. Ovid Therapeutics Inc./Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited and Eisai Company Limited are developing therapies for treating Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies (includes DS and LGS). Stiripentol has been approved in Europe for several years to treat DS and was approved in 2018 by the FDA. Zynerba Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is developing a topical formulation of cannabidiol, or CBD, for which it is working with FDA on a path forward on CONNECT-FX data for Zygel in Fragile X syndrome. There are a number of public and private companies in the early stages of developing genetic therapies for DS, including Stoke Therapeutics, Inc., which has an antisense oligonucleotide, STK-001, in early clinical trials.
In addition, there are non-FDA approved CBD preparations being made available from companies in the medical marijuana industry, which might attempt to compete with Epidiolex. While federal law prohibits the sale and distribution of most marijuana products not approved or authorized by FDA, the vast majority of states and the District of Columbia have legalized either CBD or marijuana for either recreational or medical use, or both. Under the U.S. Farm Bill, enacted in late 2018, certain extracts and other material derived from cannabis are no longer controlled under the Federal Controlled Substances Act, or CSA. However, the marketing of such products as a food, dietary supplement, or for medical purposes remains subject to FDA requirements. With respect to the marketing of CBD as a food or dietary supplement, in January 2023 FDA concluded that the existing regulatory frameworks for foods and supplements were not appropriate for CBD products and denied three citizen petitions that had asked the agency to conduct rulemaking to allow the marketing of CBD products as dietary supplements. In addition, Congressional efforts related to legalization of marijuana continue. Although our business is distinct from that of entities marketing FDA-unapproved marijuana and CBD-containing dietary supplement, future legislation or federal government action authorizing the sale, distribution, use, and insurance reimbursement of non-FDA approved marijuana or CBD products could increase competition for and adversely affect our ability to generate sales of Epidiolex and our cannabinoid product candidates.
We are aware of: exploratory research into the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol, often referred to as THC, and CBD drug formulations; discovery research within the pharmaceutical industry into synthetic agonists and antagonists of CB1 and CB2 receptors; companies that supply synthetic cannabinoids and cannabis extracts to researchers for pre-clinical and clinical investigation; and various companies that cultivate cannabis plants with a view to supplying
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herbal cannabis or nonpharmaceutical cannabis-based formulations to patients. These activities have not been approved by the FDA but may in the future compete with our products.
Moreover, we expect that Epidiolex will face competition from generic products in the future. In November and December 2022, we received notices from various ANDA filers that they have each filed with FDA an ANDA for a generic version of Epidiolex (cannabidiol) oral solution. In January 2023, we filed patent infringement suits against these ANDA filers. For a description of this litigation, see “Epidiolex Patent Litigation” in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. As a result of these lawsuits, we expect that a stay of approval of up to 30 months will be imposed by FDA on these ANDA filers.
Zepzelca. Zepzelca faces competition from topotecan, which is also an approved treatment in second line SCLC in the U.S., as well as other regimens for relapsed SCLC currently recommended in compendia guidelines, including rechallenge with first line platinum chemotherapy. There are also a number of products and immunotherapies for the treatment of second line SCLC in various phases of development.
Rylaze. Rylaze may face competition from Erwinase, which was previously approved and commercialized by Jazz as a treatment for ALL patients with hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase. In April 2020, Porton Biopharma Limited, or PBL, granted Clinigen Group plc, or Clinigen, a global license for Erwinase. However, in December 2021, Clinigen announced that FDA issued a complete response letter to PBL’s BLA for Erwinaze, indicating that the BLA cannot be approved in its current form. Rylaze may also face competition from other companies who have developed or are developing new treatments for ALL. In addition, some new asparaginase treatments could reduce the rate of hypersensitivity in patients with ALL, and new treatment protocols are being developed and approved for ALL that may not include asparaginase-containing regimens, including some for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ALL patients.
Vyxeos. With respect to Vyxeos, there are a number of alternative established therapies in AML. A key consideration in the treatment of AML patients is the patient’s suitability for chemotherapy. The AML patient population studied in the Vyxeos Phase 3 clinical trial supporting our NDA included 60-75 year old fit patients, or those deemed able to tolerate intensive induction chemotherapy. Prior to Vyxeos, the most widely recognized option for the treatment of newly-diagnosed t-AML and AML-MRC in fit patients was cytarabine in combination with daunorubicin, known as 7+3, which is still used today in this population, along with other intensive chemotherapy regimens, particularly in patients under the age of 60. Also, since Vyxeos was approved, several other products have been approved by FDA or are in development as treatment options for newly diagnosed AML patients eligible for intensive chemotherapy, such as targeted agents (e.g. midostaurin, enasidenib and ivosidenib), immunotherapies (e.g., gemtuzumab ozogamicin and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy), and agents disrupting leukemia cell survival (e.g., glasdegib). We are also aware of the increasing use of venetoclax combined with either a hypomethylating agent or low-dose cytarabine, a treatment approved by FDA in newly diagnosed AML patients who are age 75 years or older, or who have comorbidities that preclude use of intensive induction chemotherapy.
Defitelio. While there is currently no direct competition to Defitelio to treat severe VOD, changes in the types of conditioning regimens used as part of HSCT may affect the incidence of VOD diagnosis and demand for Defitelio.
An important part of our corporate strategy is to build a diversified product pipeline, including by acquiring or in-licensing and developing, or partnering to license and develop, additional products and product candidates that we believe are highly differentiated and have significant commercial potential. Our ability to continue to grow our product portfolio requires that we compete successfully with other pharmaceutical companies, many of which may have substantially greater financial sales and marketing resources, to acquire or in-license products and product candidates.
Customers
In the U.S., Xywav and Xyrem are sold to one certified specialty pharmacy, ESSDS, that ships Xywav and Xyrem directly to patients. Also in the U.S., Epidiolex is sold to specialty pharmacies, wholesalers and specialty distributors. Defitelio is sold to hospital customers through subsidiary specialty distributors of McKesson Corporation, or McKesson. Zepzelca, Rylaze and Vyxeos are sold to customers through subsidiary specialty distributors of McKesson, AmerisourceBergen Corporation, or ABC, and Cardinal Health, Inc., or Cardinal. We have distribution services agreements made in the ordinary course of business with McKesson, ABC and Cardinal and a pharmacy services agreement with ESSDS that provides for the distribution of Xywav and Xyrem to patients. For more information regarding our relationship with ESSDS, see “Business—Our Commercialized Products—Xyrem” in this Part I, Item 1. Purchases are made on a purchase order basis.
In certain countries in Europe, Defitelio and Vyxeos are sold pursuant to marketing authorizations. We distribute these products through Durbin PLC, a U.K.-based wholesaler and distributor, and O&M Movianto Nederland BV, our centralized European logistics services provider, to hospitals and local wholesalers in Europe where we market these products directly and,
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in other markets in Europe and elsewhere where we do not market these products directly, to local distributors and wholesalers. In certain countries in Europe, Epidyolex is sold pursuant to marketing authorizations. We distribute Epidyolex through a variety of wholesalers and distributors. In countries where there is no marketing authorization, Defitelio, Vyxeos and Epidyolex are available pursuant to named patient programs, temporary use authorizations or similar authorizations in accordance with local regulations controlling the medical use of unapproved products.
We directly market Xyrem in Canada for the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. Xyrem is also sold in 21 countries by UCB (which has rights to market Xyrem in 54 countries).
Manufacturing
We have a manufacturing and development facility in Athlone, Ireland where we manufacture Xywav and Xyrem, a manufacturing and development facility in Kent Science Park, U.K. where we produce Epidiolex/Epidyolex, and a manufacturing plant in Villa Guardia, Italy where we produce defibrotide drug substance. We currently do not have our own commercial manufacturing or packaging capability for our other products, product candidates or their active pharmaceutical ingredients, or APIs. As a result, our ability to develop and supply products in a timely and competitive manner depends on third party suppliers being able to meet our ongoing commercial and clinical trial needs for API, other raw materials, packaging materials and finished products. Our manufacturing facilities currently continue to be operational with essential staff onsite and office-based staff working onsite and remotely as business needs require.
Lead Marketed Products
Xywav. Xywav is manufactured at our Athlone facility. Xywav, like Xyrem, is a Schedule III controlled substance in the U.S. The API of Xywav are the calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium salts of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is the API for Xyrem), which are Schedule I controlled substances in the U.S. As a result, Xywav and Xyrem are subject to regulation by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA, under the CSA, and its manufacturing and distribution are highly restricted. Quotas from the DEA are required in order to manufacture or procure calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium salts of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the U.S. For information related to DEA quota requirements, see “Business—Government Regulation—Other Post-Approval Pharmaceutical Product Regulation—Controlled Substance Regulations” in this Part I, Item 1.
Xyrem. Xyrem is manufactured by us in our Athlone facility and by Patheon Pharmaceuticals Inc., which we refer to together with its affiliates as Patheon, under a Master Manufacturing Services Agreement, or the Patheon Agreement, entered into with Patheon in 2015. We manufacture Xyrem in our Athlone facility for most of our U.S. commercial supply and rely on Patheon to supply Xyrem for other markets, though we are not required to purchase Xyrem exclusively from Patheon. The current term of the Patheon Agreement will expire in December 2024, subject to further automatic two-yearly extensions if Patheon is then providing manufacturing services for any product, unless either party provides prior notice of termination. In addition, we may terminate the Patheon Agreement for any reason upon 12 months’ prior written notice.
Siegfried USA, LLC and its European affiliates, or Siegfried, supply sodium oxybate, the API of Xyrem, to Patheon and our Athlone facility. Although Siegfried has been our only supplier of sodium oxybate since 2012, we have the right to purchase a portion of our worldwide requirements of sodium oxybate from other suppliers. The agreement with Siegfried expires in April 2024, subject to automatic three-year extensions until either party provides advance notice of its intent to terminate the agreement. During the term of the agreement and, under certain circumstances for 18 months after the agreement terminates, Siegfried is not permitted to manufacture sodium oxybate for any other company.
Epidiolex. Epidiolex/Epidyolex is manufactured by us in our Kent Science Park facility in the U.K. Epidiolex is a pharmaceutical formulation comprising highly purified plant-derived CBD. We cultivate our cannabinoid plants in the U.K. under highly controlled and standardized conditions.
Zepzelca. Zepzelca is manufactured by Baxter Oncology GmbH, or Baxter. The current term of the agreement with Baxter will expire in December 2025 and will then be subject to automatic two-year extensions, unless either party provides advance notice of its intent to terminate the agreement. PharmaMar retains manufacturing rights for the API for U.S. and Canadian commercial supply of Zepzelca. We also entered into a manufacturing agreement for ongoing commercial supply of the drug product Zepzelca with GP Pharm S.A.
Rylaze. Rylaze is currently manufactured by Patheon, and the API of Rylaze is manufactured by AGC Biologics A/S. The initial term of the agreement with Patheon will expire in December 2025 and will then be subject to automatic two-year extensions, unless either party provides advance notice of its intent to terminate the agreement. The initial term of the agreement with AGC Biologics A/S will expire in October 2026 and will then be subject to automatic three-year extensions, unless either party provides advance notice of its intent to terminate the agreement.
Vyxeos. Vyxeos is manufactured by Baxter, which is a sole source supplier from a single site location, using our CombiPlex technology platform. CombiPlex products represent formulations with increased manufacturing complexities
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associated with producing drug delivery vehicles encapsulating two or more drugs that are maintained at a fixed ratio and, in the case of Vyxeos, two drugs that are co-encapsulated in a freeze-dried liposomal format. Our manufacturing agreement with Baxter expires in August 2025, subject to automatic three-year renewal terms, unless either party provides advance notice of its intent to terminate the agreement. While other contract manufacturers may be able to produce Vyxeos, the proprietary technology that supports the manufacture of Vyxeos is not easily transferable. The marketing authorization in the EU for Vyxeos also requires us to comply with certain manufacturing-related post-approval commitments.
Defitelio. We are our own sole supplier of, and we believe that we are currently the sole worldwide producer of, defibrotide API. We manufacture defibrotide API from porcine DNA in a single facility located in Villa Guardia, Italy. Patheon currently processes defibrotide API into its finished vial form under a specific product agreement entered into under a separate agreement with Patheon. Patheon is the sole provider of our commercial and clinical supply of Defitelio; however, we are not required to purchase Defitelio exclusively from Patheon. If Patheon does not or is not able to supply us with Defitelio for any reason, it may take time and resources to implement and execute the necessary technology transfer to another processor, and such delay could negatively impact our anticipated revenues from Defitelio and could potentially cause us to breach contractual obligations with customers or to violate local laws requiring us to deliver the product to those in need.
Product Candidates
For discussion of the challenges we face with respect to supply of our products and product candidates, see the risk factor under the heading “Delays or problems in the supply of our products for sale or for use in clinical trials, loss of our single source suppliers or failure to comply with manufacturing regulations could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
Patents and Proprietary Rights
We actively seek to patent, or to acquire or obtain licenses to third party patents, to protect our products and product candidates and related inventions and improvements that we consider important to our business. We own a portfolio of U.S. and non-U.S. patents and patent applications and have licensed rights to a number of issued patents and patent applications. Our owned and licensed patents and patent applications cover or relate to our products and product candidates, including certain formulations, used to treat particular conditions, distribution methods and methods of administration, drug delivery technologies and delivery profiles and methods of making and use. Patents extend for varying periods according to the date of the patent filing or grant and the legal term of patents in the various countries where patent protection is obtained. The patent laws of non-U.S. countries differ from those in U.S., and the degree of protection afforded by non-U.S. patents may be different from the protection offered by U.S. patents. In addition to patents, our products and product candidates are in some instances protected by various regulatory exclusivities. For a description of those exclusivities and their regulatory background, see “Business—Government Regulation—Marketing Exclusivity—The Hatch-Waxman Act” in this Part I, Item 1.
The patents, patent applications and regulatory exclusivities that relate to our marketed products include:
Xywav. We have 13 U.S. patents that relate to Xywav. These patents expire from 2033 to 2037. In addition, we have patent applications that relate to Xywav for use in additional indications that would, if issued, expire between 2040 and 2041. Xywav has been granted ODE by FDA to treat narcolepsy through 2027 and to treat IH through 2028.
Xyrem. We currently have six issued patents in the U.S. relating to Xyrem listed in FDA’s publication “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations,” or the Orange Book. Our patents relate to Xyrem’s restricted distribution system and a drug-drug interaction, or DDI, between Xyrem and divalproex sodium. In October 2018, as a result of FDA’s grant of pediatric exclusivity, an additional six months was added to the original expiration dates of all of our Orange Book-listed patents that existed at that time. As a result, our Orange Book-listed patents have periods of exclusivity between December 2022 (with an additional six months for pediatric exclusivity) and September 2033. Some of our Xyrem patents have been subject to patent litigation with the companies who filed ANDAs seeking to market a generic version of Xyrem, including challenge through the inter partes review, or IPR, procedures of the Patent Trial and Appeal Board, or PTAB, of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO. Some IPR petitions were dismissed by the PTAB. However, in July 2018, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit upheld on appeal PTAB decisions finding that six patents associated with the Xywav and Xyrem REMS and three claims of a seventh REMS patent were unpatentable. As a result, we will not be able to enforce patents or claims that the PTAB found unpatentable. Although we have settled all patent litigation against the nine companies that filed ANDAs, it is possible that additional companies may challenge our U.S. patents for Xyrem in the future. For a description of our Xyrem settlements, see the risk factor under the heading “The introduction of new products in the U.S. market that compete with, or otherwise disrupt the market for, our oxybate products and product candidates would adversely affect sales of our oxybate products and product candidates” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. For additional information on litigation involving or Orange Book-listed patents, see
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Avadel Patent Litigation” in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K
A Xyrem formulation patent that had issued in multiple non-U.S. countries expired in 2019. The European Patent Office has issued a method of administration patent relating to the DDI between Xyrem and divalproex sodium that will expire in 2034. That patent is licensed to UCB as the marketing authorization holder outside of the U.S. and Canada, and UCB has the right to enforce it. In addition to our issued patents, we have patent applications relating to Xyrem pending in the U.S. and other countries.
Epidiolex. Our patent portfolio relating to the use of CBD in the treatment of epileptic encephalopathies includes 90 distinct patent families that are either granted or filed. Most of the patent families in this portfolio claim the use of CBD in the treatment of particular childhood epilepsy syndromes, seizure sub-types and interactions with other concomitantly dosed anti-seizure drugs. To date, we have obtained 25 issued U.S. patents, including patents with claims for the use of CBD for the treatment of convulsive, drop and atonic seizures associated with both LGS and DS, an oral composition of CBD, as well as the use of CBD with clobazam, and the teaching that dose adjustment may be needed when concomitantly prescribed. These issued patents are directly aligned with the Epidiolex label, and we have listed them in the Orange Book. The patents currently listed in the Orange Book have expiry between 2035 and 2041. We have filed corresponding patent applications in many jurisdictions worldwide, including Europe, UK, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Australia and New Zealand. The USPTO has granted a patent based on data that demonstrates that Epidiolex provides a benefit over synthetic CBD in an animal model of epilepsy, which has an expiry date of 2039 and we have listed it in the Orange Book. Epidiolex has received ODE to treat seizures associated with LGS and DS through 2025 and TSC through 2027.
Zepzelca. In December 2019, we entered into an exclusive license agreement with PharmaMar pursuant to which we obtained exclusive U.S. development and commercialization rights to Zepzelca. In October 2020, we entered into the amended license agreement which expanded our exclusive license to include rights to develop and commercialize Zepzelca in Canada. We have a portfolio of in-licensed U.S. and Canadian patents for lurbinectedin relating to compositions, methods of use, and processes. For example, one U.S. patent (expiring in 2024) covers a genus of compounds, including lurbinectedin, and use in treating various cancers. A request for a patent term extension for this U.S. patent has been filed and, if granted, would extend to 2029. A request for extension (CSP) has also been filed in Canada. Zepzelca has also been granted ODE for the treatment of adults with metastatic SCLC with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy until 2027 and new chemical entity exclusivity until 2025 in the U.S.
Rylaze. In 2016, we obtained worldwide rights from Pfenex, Inc., including Pfenex’s patent rights relating to Rylaze, to develop and commercialize multiple early-stage hematology product candidates, including a license to two U.S. process patents relating to Rylaze, with respective expirations in 2026 and 2038. Pfenex has been acquired by Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated. Rylaze has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of patients with ALL or LBL. We have two patent application families relating to dosing regimens. One covers the dosing regimen (25mg/m2 intramuscularly every 48 hours), while the other covers various dosing regimens of interest. If issued, these would expire in 2040 and 2042, respectively. Another application relating to formulations of asparaginase would expire in 2042 if issued.
Vyxeos. We have a portfolio of U.S. and non-U.S. patents and patent applications for Vyxeos and the CombiPlex technology platform relating to various compositions and methods of making and use. These include seven U.S. patents covering Vyxeos compositions and methods of use expiring between 2025 and 2034 and two U.S. patents covering CombiPlex (which also cover Vyxeos) expiring in January 2027. These patents are listed in the Orange Book. Vyxeos has been granted ODE by FDA until August 2024, seven years from its FDA approval, for the treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC. In March 2021, FDA approved an expanded label for Vyxeos for the treatment of t-AML or AML-MRC in pediatric patients 1 year and older. In addition, Vyxeos has been granted orphan drug designation by the EC until August 2028, ten years from its EC approval for the treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC and was approved by Health Canada for treatment of adults with newly diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC in April 2021.
Defitelio. The unique process of deriving defibrotide from porcine DNA is extensive and uses both chemical and biological processes that rely on complex characterization methods. We have U.S. and non-U.S. patents and patent applications relating to various compositions, methods of use and methods of characterization, with the issued patents expiring at various times between 2021 and 2035. One U.S. patent is listed in the Orange Book and an additional allowed patent is expected to be Orange Book listed in 2022. Defibrotide has been granted ODE by FDA to treat and prevent VOD until March 2023. Defibrotide has also been granted orphan drug designation by the EC and the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety to treat and prevent VOD, by the Commonwealth of Australia-Department of Health for the treatment of VOD and by the EC for the prevention of acute Graft-versus-Host Disease, or aGvHD,
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and have also received approvals in Canada, Brazil and Switzerland. We acquired the rights to defibrotide for the treatment and prevention of VOD in North America, Central America and South America from Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in 2014.
The patents and/or patent applications that relate to our product candidates include:
Suvecaltamide (JZP385). Through the acquisition of Cavion in 2019, we obtained a portfolio of U.S. and non-U.S. patents and patent applications, including rights relating to compositions and methods of using suvecaltamide. The portfolio includes a U.S. composition of matter patent relating to suvecaltamide, which expires in 2027, but which can be extended to 2032 depending on regulatory approval. Two further U.S. patents to the treatment of specific conditions (Angelman Syndrome and memory and cognitive disorders) provide supplemental protection to 2038.
JZP150. Through the asset purchase and exclusive license agreement with SpringWorks in 2020, we obtained a license to a portfolio of U.S. and non-U.S. patents and patent applications, including rights relating to compositions and methods of using JZP150. The portfolio includes a U.S. composition of matter patent relating to JZP150, which expires in 2029.
JZP441. Through a license agreement with Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd. in 2022, we obtained a license to a portfolio of U.S. and non-U.S. patents and patent applications, including rights relating to compositions and methods of using JZP441. The portfolio contains a U.S. composition of matter patent relating to JZP441, which expires in 2040 (excluding any adjustments or extensions).
JZP815. Through a collaboration agreement and an asset purchase agreement with Redx in 2019, we acquired a portfolio of U.S. and non-U.S. patents and patent applications, including rights relating to compositions and methods of using JZP815. The portfolio contains a U.S. composition of matter patent relating to JZP815, which expires in 2035 (excluding any adjustments or extensions).
Zanidatamab. Through a license agreement with Zymeworks BC Inc. in 2022, we obtained a license to a portfolio of U.S. and non-U.S. patents and patent applications, including rights relating to compositions and methods of using zanidatamab. The portfolio contains a U.S. composition of matter patent relating to zanidatamab, which expires in 2034 (excluding any adjustments or extensions).
In addition, we have rights to a number of trademarks and service marks, and pending trademark and service mark applications, in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world to further protect the proprietary position of our products. For a discussion of the challenges we face in obtaining or maintaining patent and/or trade secret protection, see the risk factors under the heading “Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
Government Regulation
As a global pharmaceutical company, our activities are subject to extensive regulation in the U.S., Europe and other countries where we do business. Regulatory requirements encompass the entire life cycle of pharmaceutical products, from research and development activities to marketing approval, manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event and safety reporting, storage, advertising, promotion, sale, pricing and reimbursement, recordkeeping, distribution, importing and exporting. Regulations differ from country to country and are constantly evolving.
Testing and Approval of Pharmaceutical Products
We are not permitted to market a product in a country until we receive approval from the relevant regulatory authority, such as FDA in the U.S. and the EC or the competent authorities of the EU member states. An application for marketing approval must contain information generated by the applicant, also called a sponsor, demonstrating the quality, safety and efficacy of the product candidate, including data from preclinical and clinical trials, proposed product packaging and labeling and information pertaining to product formulation and the manufacture and analytical testing of the API and the finished product.
In the U.S., FDA reviews and, if warranted, approves applications for marketing approval. The process for obtaining marketing approval in the U.S. for a drug or biologic product candidate generally includes:
conducting preclinical laboratory and animal testing and submitting the results to FDA in an investigational new drug, or IND, application requesting approval to test the product candidate in human clinical trials;
conducting adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the product candidate in the desired indication;
submitting an NDA, supplemental New Drug Application, or sNDA, or Biologics License Application, or BLA, as appropriate, to FDA seeking approval for a specific indication; and
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completing inspections by FDA of the facilities where the product candidate is manufactured, analyzed and stored to demonstrate compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, and any requested FDA audits of the clinical trial sites that generated the data supporting the application.
Human clinical trials conducted before approval of a product generally proceed in three sequential phases, although the phases may overlap. In Phase 1, the initial introduction of the product candidate in humans, the product candidate is typically tested to assess metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological actions and tolerability, including side effects associated with increasing doses. Phase 2 usually involves clinical trials in a limited patient population to determine the effectiveness of the product candidate for a particular indication or indications, dosage tolerance and optimum dosage and to identify common adverse effects and safety risks. If a product candidate demonstrates evidence of effectiveness and an acceptable safety profile in Phase 2, Phase 3 clinical trials are undertaken to obtain additional information about clinical efficacy and safety in a larger number of patients. Clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with specific protocols, as well as FDA requirements related to conducting the trials and recording and reporting the results, commonly referred to as good clinical practices, to ensure that the resulting data are credible and accurate and that the trial participants are adequately protected. FDA enforces good clinical practices through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, clinical investigators and trial sites.
Once an NDA, sNDA or BLA has been compiled and submitted, FDA performs an initial review before it accepts the application for filing. FDA may refuse to file an application and/or request additional information before acceptance. Once accepted for filing, FDA begins an in-depth review of the application. Under the current goals and policies agreed to by FDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, for a new molecular entity, FDA has ten months from the filing decision in which to complete its initial review of a standard application and respond to the applicant, and six months from the filing decision for a priority application. FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates, and in certain circumstances, the PDUFA goal date may be extended.
FDA also has various programs, including Fast Track, Priority Review, Breakthrough Therapy and Accelerated Approval (Subpart H and E), RTOR pilot program, that are intended to expedite the process for reviewing certain applications and/or provide for approval on the basis of surrogate endpoints or restricted distribution. Generally, products may be eligible for one or more of these programs if they are intended for serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions, have potential to address unmet medical needs, or may provide meaningful benefit over existing treatments. For example, FDA granted Vyxeos Breakthrough Therapy and Fast Track designations and granted Priority Review with respect to our NDA for Vyxeos for the treatment of t-AML and AML-MRC that was approved in August 2017. In addition, a priority review voucher, or PRV, may be used to obtain priority review by FDA for one of our future regulatory submissions. We used the PRV we acquired in May 2018 to obtain priority review for our Xywav for the treatment of IH sNDA, which was approved by FDA in August 2021. In June 2020, FDA granted Accelerated Approval to Zepzelca for relapsed SCLC. In December 2020, we initiated the submission of a BLA for Rylaze for ALL under the RTOR pilot program, which was approved by FDA in June 2021.
During its review of an application, FDA evaluates whether the product demonstrates the required level of safety and efficacy for the indication for which approval is sought and conducts the inspections and audits described above. FDA may also refer an application to an advisory committee, typically a panel of clinicians, for review, evaluation and a non-binding recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. When FDA completes its evaluation, it issues either an approval letter or a complete response letter. A complete response letter generally outlines what FDA considers to be the deficiencies in the application and may indicate that substantial additional testing or information is required prior to FDA approval of the product. If and when identified deficiencies have been addressed to FDA’s satisfaction after a review of the resubmission of the application FDA will issue an approval letter.
Even if a product is approved, the approval may be subject to limitations based on FDA’s interpretation of the data submitted in the application. For example, as a condition of approval, FDA may require the sponsor to agree to certain post-marketing requirements, such as conducting Phase 4, or post-approval, clinical trials to gain additional safety data or to document a clinical benefit in the case of products approved under Accelerated Approval regulations. FDA’s approval of the NDA for Defitelio included a number of post-marketing commitments and requirements, including the requirement that we conduct a clinical trial to analyze the safety of defibrotide versus best supportive care in the prevention of VOD in adult and pediatric patients. For its approval of Vyxeos, FDA required that we conduct a safety study to characterize infusion-related reactions in patients treated with Vyxeos and a clinical trial to determine dosing to minimize toxicity in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment. Further, FDA granted Accelerated Approval to Zepzelca for relapsed SCLC based on data from a Phase 2 trial, which approval is contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a post-marketing clinical trial.
In addition, if FDA determines that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the product outweigh the risks, a sponsor may be required to include a proposed REMS (either as part of the application or after approval), which may include a patient package insert or a medication guide to provide information to consumers about the product’s risks and benefits; a plan for communication to healthcare providers; or conditions on the product’s prescribing or distribution referred to as elements to assure safe use. Xywav and Xyrem are required to have a REMS. For more discussion regarding the Xywav and Xyrem REMS, see the risk factors under the headings “The distribution and sale of our oxybate products are subject to significant
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regulatory restrictions, including the requirements of a REMS, and these regulatory requirements subject us to risks and uncertainties, any of which could negatively impact sales of Xywav and Xyrem” and “Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
The EU and many individual countries have regulatory structures similar to the U.S. for conducting preclinical and clinical testing and applying for marketing approval or authorization, although specifics may vary widely from country to country. Clinical trials in the EU must be conducted in accordance with the requirements of the EU Clinical Trials Regulation and applicable good clinical practice standards. In the EU, there are several procedures for requesting marketing authorization which can be more efficient than applying for authorization on a country-by-country basis. There is a “centralized” procedure allowing submission of a single marketing authorization application to the European Medicines Agency, or EMA. If the EMA issues a positive opinion, the EC will grant a centralized marketing authorization that is valid in all EU member states and three of the four European Free Trade Association countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). The centralized procedure is mandatory for certain medicinal products, including orphan medicinal products and biotechnology-derived medicinal products, and optional for others. There is also a “decentralized” procedure allowing companies to file identical applications to several EU member states simultaneously for product candidates that have not yet been authorized in any EU member state and a “mutual recognition” procedure allowing companies that have a product already authorized in one EU member state to apply for that authorization to be recognized by the competent authorities in other EU member states. The U.K.’s withdrawal from the EU on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as Brexit, has created uncertainty concerning the future relationship between the U.K. and the EU. Among the changes that have had a direct impact are that Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) is now treated as a third country. To mitigate the immediate impact of this in December 2020, the EU and U.K. reached an agreement in principle on the framework for their future relationship, the EU-U.K. Trade and Cooperation Agreement, or TCA. With regard to EU regulations, Northern Ireland continues to follow the EU regulatory rules. As part of the TCA, the EU and the U.K. recognize Good Manufacturing Practice, or GMP, inspections carried out by the other party and the acceptance of official GMP documents issued by the other party. The TCA also encourages, although it does not oblige, the parties to consult one another on proposals to introduce significant changes to technical regulations or inspection procedures. Among the areas of absence of mutual recognition are batch testing and batch release. The U.K. has unilaterally agreed to accept EU batch testing and batch release until January 2023. In December 2022, the U.K. announced its decision to make permanent the approach of maintaining a list of approved countries for import into Great Britain which require no import testing or U.K. “qualified person” release certification. However, the EU continues to apply EU laws that require batch testing and batch release to take place in the EU territory. This means that medicinal products that are tested and released in the U.K. must be retested and re-released when entering the EU market for commercial use. As regards marketing authorizations, Great Britain has introduced a separate regulatory submission process, approval process and a separate national marketing authorization. Northern Ireland, however, continues to be covered by the marketing authorizations granted by the EC.
The maximum timeframe for the evaluation of an application in the EU under the centralized procedure is 210 days, subject to certain exceptions and clock stops. An initial marketing authorization granted in the EU is valid for five years, with renewal subject to re-evaluation of the risk-benefit profile of the product. Once renewed, the authorization is usually valid for an unlimited period unless the national competent authority or the EC decides on justified grounds to proceed with one additional five-year renewal.
In the EU, if an applicant can demonstrate that comprehensive data on the efficacy and safety of the product under normal conditions of use cannot be provided due to certain specified objective and verifiable reasons, products may be granted marketing authorization “under exceptional circumstances.” A marketing authorization granted under exceptional circumstances is valid for five years, subject to an annual reassessment of conditions imposed by the EC. The marketing authorization in the EU for Defitelio was granted under exceptional circumstances because it was not possible to obtain complete information about the product due to the rarity of the disease and because ethical considerations prevented conducting a study directly comparing Defitelio with best supportive care or a placebo. As a result, the marketing authorization requires us to comply with a number of post-marketing obligations, including obligations relating to the manufacture of the drug substance and finished product, the submission of data concerning patients treated with the product collected through a third-party patient registry and the establishment of a multi-center, multinational and prospective observational patient registry to investigate the long-term safety, health outcomes and patterns of utilization of Defitelio during normal use. We are in the process of conducting the post-authorization study in the EU to provide further data on long-term safety, health outcomes and patterns of utilization of Defitelio in normal use.
Similar to the use of REMS in the U.S. to ensure that the benefits of a product outweigh its risks, in the EU and other countries we are required and may, in the future in relation to new products, be required to agree to post-marketing obligations or conditions in the marketing authorization for our products, to include a patient package insert or a medication guide to provide information to consumers about the product’s risks and benefits, to implement a plan for communication to healthcare providers, and to impose restrictions on the product’s distribution. For example, the marketing authorization in the EU for Vyxeos requires us to comply with certain manufacturing-related post-approval commitments.
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After approval, certain changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, making certain manufacturing changes, modifying a REMS, or making certain additional labeling claims, are subject to further regulatory review and approval. Obtaining approval for a new indication generally requires that additional clinical studies be conducted to demonstrate that the product is safe and effective for the new intended use. Such regulatory reviews can result in denial or modification of the planned changes, or requirements to conduct additional tests or evaluations that can substantially delay or increase the cost of the planned changes.
Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products
The manufacturing process for pharmaceutical products is highly regulated, and regulators may shut down manufacturing facilities that they believe do not comply with regulations. We and the third party suppliers of our products are subject to cGMP, which are extensive regulations governing manufacturing processes, stability testing, recordkeeping and quality standards as defined by FDA, the EC, the EMA, competent authorities of EU member states and other regulatory authorities. FDA also periodically inspects manufacturing facilities and the sponsor’s and manufacturer’s records related to manufacturing, and assesses compliance with cGMP. Following such inspections, FDA may issue notices on Form FDA 483 and warning letters. In addition to Form FDA 483 notices and warning letters, failure to comply with the statutory and regulatory requirements may result in suspension of manufacturing, product seizure, withdrawal of the product from the market, administrative, civil and criminal penalties, among other enforcement remedies both in the U.S. and in non-U.S. countries.
In the EU, a manufacturing authorization is required to manufacture medicinal products, and the manufacturing authorization holder must comply with various requirements set out in applicable EU laws, regulations and guidance. These requirements include compliance with EU cGMP standards when manufacturing products and their APIs, including APIs manufactured outside of the EU with the intention of importing them into the EU. In addition to inspection reports, manufacturers and marketing authorization holders may be subject to civil, criminal or administrative sanctions, including suspension of manufacturing authorization, in cases of non-compliance with the EU or EU member states’ requirements applicable to manufacturing.
Sales and Marketing of Pharmaceutical Products
Advertising and Promotional Activities
FDA regulates advertising and promotional activities for products in the U.S., requiring advertising, promotional materials and labeling to be truthful and not misleading, and products to be marketed only for their approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. FDA actively investigates allegations of off-label promotion in order to enforce regulations prohibiting these types of activities. FDA routinely issues informal and more formal communications such as untitled letters or warning letters interpreting its authority over these matters. While such communications may not be considered final agency decisions, many companies may decide not to contest the agency’s interpretations so as to avoid disputes with FDA, even if they believe the claims they were making to be truthful, not misleading and otherwise lawful.
In the EU, the advertising and promotion of our products are subject to laws governing promotion of medicinal products, interactions with physicians, misleading and comparative advertising and unfair commercial practices. For example, applicable laws require that promotional materials and advertising in relation to medicinal products comply with the product’s Summary of Product Characteristics, or SmPC, as approved by the competent authorities in connection with a marketing authorization approval. The SmPC is the document that provides information to physicians concerning the safe and effective use of the product. Promotional activity that does not comply with the SmPC is considered off-label and is prohibited in the EU. Other applicable laws at the EU level and in the individual EU member states also apply to the advertising and promotion of medicinal products, including laws that prohibit the direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only medicinal products and further limit or restrict the advertising and promotion of our products to the general public and to health care professionals. Violations of the rules governing the promotion of medicinal products in the EU could be penalized by administrative measures, fines and imprisonment.
Fraud and Abuse
We are also subject to numerous fraud and abuse laws and regulations globally. In the U.S., there are a variety of federal and state laws restricting certain marketing practices in the pharmaceutical industry pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including anti-kickback laws and false claims laws. Our sales, marketing, patient support and medical activities may be subject to scrutiny under these laws. The U.S. federal healthcare program Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving anything of value to induce (or in return for) the referral of business, including the purchase, recommendation or prescription of a particular drug reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or other federally financed healthcare programs. The statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical companies on one hand and patients, prescribers, purchasers and formulary managers on the other. Although there are a number of statutory exemptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting certain common manufacturer business arrangements and activities from prosecution and administrative sanction, the exemptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly
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and are subject to regulatory revision or changes in interpretation by the U.S. Department of Justice, or DOJ, and the Office of Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or OIG. Practices or arrangements that involve remuneration may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exemption or safe harbor. For example, in November 2020, the OIG issued a Special Fraud Alert to highlight certain inherent risks of remuneration related to speaker programs sponsored by drug and device companies, which do not fall under either safe harbor or statutory exception protection. The Special Fraud Alert sent a clear signal that speaker programs will be subject to potentially heightened enforcement scrutiny, in particular for those programs with certain characteristics identified as risk factors by OIG, including meals exceeding modest value or where alcohol is made available; lack of substantive or new content presented; programs held at venues not conducive to the exchange of educational information; repeat attendees or attendees without a legitimate business interest; sales or marketing influence on speaker selection; and excessive speaker compensation. Violations of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute may be established without providing specific intent to violate the statute, and may be punishable by civil, criminal, and administrative fines and penalties, damages, imprisonment, and/or exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs.
The federal civil False Claims Act prohibits, among other things, any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment of federal funds, or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid. A claim resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim. The False Claims Act also permits a private individual acting as a “whistleblower” to bring actions on behalf of themselves and the federal government alleging violations of the statute and to share in any monetary recovery. Violations of the False Claims Act may result in significant financial penalties (including mandatory penalties on a per claim or statement basis), treble damages and exclusion from participation in federal health care programs.
Pharmaceutical companies are subject to other federal false claim and statements laws, some of which extend to non-government health benefit programs. For example, the healthcare fraud provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and its implementing regulations, or HIPAA, impose criminal liability for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any health care benefit program, including private third party payors, or falsifying or covering up a material fact or making any materially false or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for health care benefits, items or services. Violations of HIPAA fraud provisions may result in criminal, civil and administrative penalties, fines and damages, including exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs.
The majority of individual states also have statutes or regulations similar to the federal anti-kickback law and the False Claims Act, which apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, apply regardless of the payor. Other states restrict whether and when pharmaceutical companies may provide meals to health care professionals or engage in other marketing-related activities, and certain states and cities require identification or licensing of sales representatives.
Other Post-Approval Pharmaceutical Product Regulation
Safety Reporting/Pharmacovigilance
FDA, the EMA and other governmental authorities track information on side effects and adverse events reported during clinical studies and after marketing approval. We are required to file periodic safety update reports with the authorities concerning adverse events. If, upon review, an authority determines that any events and/or reports indicate a trend or signal, they can require a change in a product label, restrict sales and marketing, require post-approval safety studies, require a labor intensive collection of data regarding the risks and benefits of marketed products and ongoing assessments of those risks and benefits and/or require or conduct other actions, potentially including withdrawal or suspension of the product from the market. For example, if the EMA has concerns that the risk-benefit profile of a product has changed, it can, following an investigation procedure, adopt an opinion advising that the existing marketing authorization for the product be varied or suspended and requiring the marketing authorization holder to conduct post-authorization safety studies. The opinion is then submitted for approval by the EC. Also, from time to time, FDA issues drug safety communications on its adverse event reporting system based on its review of reported adverse events.
FDA and the competent authorities of the EU member states on behalf of the EMA also periodically inspect our records related to safety reporting. Following such inspections, FDA may issue notices on FDA Form 483 and warning letters that could cause us to modify certain activities. An FDA Form 483 notice, if issued, can list conditions FDA investigators believe may have violated relevant FDA regulations or guidance. Failure to adequately and promptly correct the observation(s) can result in a warning letter or other regulatory enforcement action. Similarly, the EMA’s Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee may propose to the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use that the marketing authorization holder be required to take specific steps. Non-compliance can lead to the variation, suspension or withdrawal of marketing authorization or imposition of financial penalties or other enforcement measures.
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Sunshine Act and Transparency Laws
The Physician Payment Sunshine Act requires tracking of payments and transfers of value to physicians and teaching hospitals and ownership interests held by physicians and their families, and reporting to the federal government and public disclosure of these data. Beginning in 2022, reporting is required of information regarding payments and transfers of value provided to physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse-midwives. A number of states now require pharmaceutical companies to report expenses relating to the marketing and promotion of pharmaceutical products and to report gifts and payments to healthcare providers in the states. Government agencies and private entities may inquire about our marketing practices or pursue other enforcement activities based on the disclosures in those public reports.
Outside the U.S., interactions between pharmaceutical companies and physicians are also governed by strict laws, regulations, industry self-regulation codes of conduct and physicians’ codes of professional conduct. The provision of benefits or advantages to physicians to induce or encourage the prescription, recommendation, endorsement, purchase, supply, order or use of medicinal products, which is prohibited in the EU, is governed by the national anti-bribery laws of the EU member states, as described below in “Business—Government Regulation—Anti-Corruption Legislation” in this Part I, Item 1. Violation of these laws could result in substantial fines and imprisonment. Certain EU member states, or industry codes of conduct, require that payments made to physicians be publicly disclosed. Moreover, agreements with physicians must often be the subject of prior notification and approval by the physician’s employer, his/her competent professional organization, and/or the competent authorities of the individual EU member states. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in reputational risk, public reprimands, administrative penalties, fines or imprisonment.
Controlled Substance Regulations
A drug product approved by FDA may be subject to scheduling as a controlled substance under the CSA depending on the drug’s potential for abuse. Controlled substances that are pharmaceutical products are subject to a high degree of regulation under the CSA, which establishes, among other things, certain registration, manufacturing quotas, security, recordkeeping, reporting, import, export and other requirements administered by the DEA. The DEA classifies controlled substances into five schedules. Schedule I substances by definition have a high potential for abuse, have no currently “accepted medical use” in the U.S., lack accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and may not be prescribed, marketed or sold in the U.S. Pharmaceutical products approved for use in the U.S. may be classified as Schedule II, III, IV or V, with Schedule II substances considered to present the highest potential for abuse or dependence and Schedule V substances the lowest relative risk of abuse. The API of Xywav and Xyrem, oxybate salts, are regulated by the DEA as Schedule I controlled substances, and Xywav and Xyrem are regulated as Schedule III controlled substances. Certain product candidates we are developing contain controlled substances as defined in the CSA. Drug products approved by FDA that contain cannabis or cannabis extracts may be controlled substances and will be rescheduled to Schedules II-V after approval, or, like Epidiolex, removed completely from the schedules by operation of other laws.
The DEA limits the quantity of certain Schedule I and II controlled substances that may be manufactured and procured in the U.S. in any given calendar year through a quota system and, as a result, quotas from the DEA are required in order to manufacture and package sodium oxybate and Xyrem in the U.S. Accordingly, we require DEA quotas for Siegfried, our U.S. based sodium oxybate supplier, to procure sodium oxybate and for Patheon, our U.S.-based Xyrem supplier, to obtain the sodium oxybate from Siegfried in order to manufacture and supply us with Xyrem. Xywav and Xyrem manufactured at our plant in Ireland enters the U.S. as a Schedule III drug and thus does not require a manufacturing quota.
As Schedule III drugs, Xywav and Xyrem are also subject to DEA import volume limits and state regulations relating to manufacturing, storage, distribution and physician prescription procedures, including limitations on prescription refills. In addition, the third parties who perform our clinical and commercial manufacturing, distribution, dispensing and clinical studies for Xywav and Xyrem are required to maintain necessary DEA registrations and state licenses. The DEA periodically inspects facilities for compliance with its rules and regulations.
Other Regulations
There are many other requirements and restrictions in the U.S. and elsewhere imposed on pharmaceutical companies and their activities, including those related to the posting of information relating to clinical studies and their outcomes, the export and importation of products, required authorizations for distributors, the identification or licensing of sales representatives, restrictions on the ability of manufacturers to offer co-pay support to patients for certain prescription drugs, implementation of required compliance programs or marketing codes of conduct, protection of the environment, taxation and work safety. Non-compliance with such requirements may result in civil, criminal or administrative sanctions.
Anti-Corruption Legislation
Our business activities outside of the U.S. are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and similar anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws, regulations, industry self-regulation codes of conduct and physicians’ codes of professional
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conduct or rules of other countries in which we operate, including the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010, or the U.K. Bribery Act. The FCPA and similar anti-corruption laws in other countries generally prohibit the offering, promising, giving, or authorizing others to give anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to U.S. or non-U.S. government officials in order to improperly influence any act or decision, secure an improper advantage, or obtain or retain business. The FCPA also requires public companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the company and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. The U.K. Bribery Act prohibits giving, offering, or promising bribes to any person, including U.K. and non-U.K. government officials and private persons, as well as requesting, agreeing to receive, or accepting bribes from any person. In addition, under the U.K. Bribery Act, companies that carry on a business or part of a business in the U.K. may be held liable for bribes given, offered or promised to any person, including U.K. and non-U.K. government officials and private persons in any country, by employees and persons associated with the company in order to obtain or retain business or a business advantage for the company. Liability is strict, with no element of a corrupt state of mind, but a defense of having in place adequate procedures designed to prevent bribery is available. As described above, our business is heavily regulated and therefore involves significant interaction with government officials in many countries. Additionally, in certain countries, the health care providers who prescribe pharmaceuticals are employed by their government, and the purchasers of pharmaceuticals are government entities; therefore, our dealings with these prescribers and purchasers may be subject to the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar laws. Recently the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and the DOJ have increased their FCPA enforcement activities with respect to pharmaceutical companies. In addition, under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, private individuals who report to the SEC original information that leads to successful enforcement actions may be eligible for a monetary award. We engage in ongoing efforts designed to ensure our compliance with these laws, including due diligence, training, policies, procedures, and internal controls. However, there is no certainty that all employees and third party business partners (including our distributors, wholesalers, agents, contractors, and other partners) will comply with anti-bribery laws. In particular, we do not control the actions of our suppliers and other third party agents, although we may be liable for their actions. Violation of these laws may result in civil or criminal sanctions, which could include monetary fines, criminal penalties, and disgorgement of past profits.
Data Protection and Privacy
We are subject to data protection and privacy laws and regulations globally, which restrict the processing of personal data. The legislative and regulatory landscape for privacy and data security continues to evolve with an increased attention in countries globally that could potentially affect our business. In particular, we are subject to the EU General Data Protection Regulation, which imposes penalties up to 4% of annual global revenue, and the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018. These laws and regulations applicable to our business, increase potential enforcement and litigation activity. In order to manage these evolving risks, we have adopted a global privacy program that governs the processing of personal data across our business.
Marketing Exclusivity
The Hatch-Waxman Act
The marketing approval process described above for the U.S. is premised on the applicant being the owner of, or having obtained a right of reference to, all of the data required to prove the safety and effectiveness of a drug product. This type of marketing application, sometimes referred to as a “full” or “stand-alone” NDA, is governed by Section 505(b)(1) of the United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA. A Section 505(b)(1) NDA contains full reports of investigations of safety and effectiveness, which includes the results of preclinical and clinical trials, together with detailed information on the manufacture and composition of the product, in addition to other information. As an alternative, the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Act, provides two abbreviated approval pathways for certain drug products.
The first path, under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA, usually is used for the approval of a product that is similar, but not identical, to a previously-approved brand-name product, referred to as the reference listed drug, or RLD. Under this path, the applicant is permitted to rely to some degree on FDA’s finding that the RLD is safe and effective and must submit its own product-specific data on safety and effectiveness only to the extent necessary to bridge the differences between the products. The second abbreviated path established under the Hatch-Waxman Act is for the approval of generic drugs. Section 505(j) of the FDCA permits the submission of an ANDA for a generic version of an approved, brand-name drug. Generally, an ANDA must contain data and information showing that the proposed generic product and the RLD (i) have the same active ingredient, in the same strength and dosage form, to be delivered via the same route of administration, (ii) are intended for the same uses, and (iii) are bioequivalent. This data and information are provided instead of data and information independently demonstrating the proposed generic product’s safety and effectiveness.
The Hatch-Waxman Act requires an ANDA or a Section 505(b)(2) NDA applicant to certify that there are no patents listed for that product in the Orange Book, or that for each Orange Book-listed patent either the listed patent has expired, the listed patent will expire on a particular date and approval is sought after patent expiration, or the listed patent is invalid or will
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not be infringed by the manufacture, use or sale of the new product. A certification that approval is sought after patent expiration is called a “Paragraph III Certification.” A certification that the new product will not infringe the RLD’s Orange Book-listed patents, or that such patents are invalid, is called a “Paragraph IV Certification.” If a relevant patent covers an approved method of use, an ANDA or Section 505(b)(2) NDA applicant can also file a statement, called, in the case of an ANDA, a “section viii statement,” that the application does not seek approval of the method of use covered by the listed patent. With such a statement, the applicant must “carve out” the protected method of use (typically an indication and related material) from the proposed product’s labeling. If the applicant makes a Paragraph III Certification, the ANDA or the Section 505(b)(2) NDA will not be approved until the listed patents claiming the RLD have expired.
If the applicant has provided a Paragraph IV Certification to FDA, the applicant must also send a notice of that certification to the NDA holder and the relevant patent holders once FDA accepts the ANDA or the Section 505(b)(2) NDA for filing. The NDA and patent holders then have 45 days to initiate a patent infringement lawsuit. Filing the lawsuit triggers an automatic stay on FDA’s approval of the ANDA or the Section 505(b)(2) NDA until the earliest of 30 months after the NDA holder’s receipt of the notice of Paragraph IV Certification, expiration of the patent, certain settlements of the lawsuit, or a decision in the infringement case that is favorable to the applicant. FDA may issue tentative approval of an application if the application meets all conditions for approval but cannot receive effective approval because the 30-month stay or another period of regulatory exclusivity has not expired. If an ANDA or Section 505(b)(2) NDA is approved before conclusion of any relevant patent litigation, the applicant can choose to launch the product, but does so “at risk” of being liable for damages, and potentially treble damages, if the RLD sponsor or patent holder ultimately prevails in patent litigation.
Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, newly approved drugs and indications may benefit from statutory periods of non-patent marketing exclusivity that can potentially delay review or approval of an ANDA or Section 505(b)(2) application. For example, the Hatch-Waxman Act provides five-year marketing exclusivity to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity, meaning a drug containing an active moiety that FDA has not previously approved. During this period, FDA cannot accept for review an ANDA or a Section 505(b)(2) NDA for a product containing the same moiety, except that an application containing a Paragraph IV Certification may be submitted after four years, which may trigger the litigation and stay described above. The Hatch-Waxman Act also provides three years of marketing exclusivity with the approval of an NDA, including a Section 505(b)(2) NDA, for a product containing a previously-approved moiety but that incorporates a change (such as a new indication, dosage form or strength) from an approved product with the same moiety, if the change required clinical data from new investigations that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant. This three-year exclusivity does not preclude submission of the ANDA or Section 505(b)(2) NDA for such a product, but prevents FDA from giving final approval to such product.
The Hatch-Waxman Act also permits a patent term extension of up to five years (but not beyond 14 years from the date of approval) for an NDA, including a Section 505(b)(2) NDA, that is approved for a product that contains an active ingredient that has not previously been approved. The extension, which compensates for patent term lost during product development and FDA regulatory review process, is generally equal to the sum of one-half the time between the effective date of an IND application and the submission date of an NDA, and all of the time between the submission date of an NDA and the approval of that application. It is available for only one patent for a given product, and it must be a patent that claims the product or a method of using or manufacturing the product. The USPTO, in consultation with FDA, reviews and approves applications for patent term extension.
In the EU, innovative medicinal products that are subject to marketing authorization on the basis of a full dossier qualify for eight years’ data exclusivity upon marketing authorization and an additional two years’ market exclusivity. Data exclusivity prevents regulatory authorities in the EU from referencing the innovator’s data to assess a generic application or biosimilar application for eight years from the date of authorization of the innovative product, after which a generic or biosimilar marketing authorization application can be submitted, and the innovator’s data may be referenced. However, the generic product or biosimilar products cannot be marketed in the EU for a further two years thereafter. The overall ten-year period may be extended for a further year to a maximum of 11 years if, during the first eight years of those ten years, the marketing authorization holder obtains an authorization for one or more new therapeutic indications which, during the scientific evaluation prior to their authorization, are held to bring a significant clinical benefit in comparison with existing therapies.
Orphan Drug and Other Exclusivities
Some jurisdictions, including the U.S., may designate drugs or biologics for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. FDA grants orphan drug designation to drugs or biologics intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is one that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S., or more than 200,000 individuals, but for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the product and making it available in the U.S. for the disease or condition will be recovered from U.S. sales of the product. Orphan drug designation does not shorten the duration of the regulatory review process or lower the approval standards, but can provide important benefits, including consultation with FDA. If a product is approved for its orphan designated use, it may be entitled to ODE, which blocks FDA from approving for seven years any other application for a product that is the same drug for the same indication. If there is a previously-approved product that is the
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same drug for the same indication, orphan drug designation requires the sponsor to provide a plausible hypothesis of clinical superiority over the approved product, whereas ODE requires the sponsor to actually demonstrate clinical superiority. Clinical superiority can be established by way of greater efficacy, greater safety, or making a major contribution to patient care. Additionally, a later product can be approved if the sponsor holding ODE consents, or cannot adequately supply the market. ODE does not prevent approval of another sponsor’s application for different indications or uses of the same drug, or for different drugs for the same indication. Defibrotide has been granted ODE by FDA to treat and prevent VOD until March 2023. Vyxeos has been granted ODE by FDA for the treatment of AML until August 2024. Epidiolex has received ODE to treat seizures associated with LGS and DS through 2025 and TSC through 2027. In June 2021, FDA, recognized seven years of ODE for Xywav stating that Xywav is clinically superior to Xyrem by means of greater safety due to reduced chronic sodium burden. Xywav has been granted ODE by FDA to treat narcolepsy through 2027 and to treat IH through 2028. Rylaze has been granted ODE for the treatment of patients with ALL or LBL until 2028.
Biologic products approved under a BLA are subject to the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act, or BPCIA, which authorizes an abbreviated approval pathway for a biological product that is “biosimilar” to an already approved biologic, or reference product. The BPCIA provides periods of exclusivity that protect a reference product from competition by biosimilars. FDA may not accept a biosimilar application for review until four years after the date of first licensure of the reference product, and the biosimilar cannot be licensed until 12 years after the reference product was first licensed.
Under certain circumstances, the exclusivity periods applicable to drugs and biologics and the patent-related protections applicable to drugs may be eligible for a six-month extension if the sponsor submits pediatric data that fairly respond to a written request from FDA for such data. This exclusivity may be granted even if the data does not support a pediatric indication. We consider seeking pediatric exclusivity for our products whenever appropriate. For example, in response to a written request from FDA, we conducted a Phase 3 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Xyrem in children and adolescents aged seven to 17 who have narcolepsy with cataplexy, and submitted study results in a supplement to the Xyrem NDA, seeking approval for this indication. In October 2018, FDA approved the sNDA and notified us that we had been granted pediatric exclusivity, extending by six months the preclusive effect of our Orange Book-listed patents for Xyrem, as well as the three-year regulatory exclusivity period granted to the Xyrem pediatric indication because of the clinical studies that were necessary for approval of the sNDA.
In the EU, orphan drug designation may be granted to products that can be used to treat life-threatening diseases or chronically debilitating conditions with an incidence of no more than five in 10,000 people or that, for economic reasons, would be unlikely to be developed without incentives. Orphan designated medicinal products are entitled to a range of benefits during the development and regulatory review process and ten years of market exclusivity in all EU member states upon approval. As in the U.S., a similar medicinal product with the same orphan indication may be approved, notwithstanding orphan product exclusivity, if the exclusivity holder gives consent or if the manufacturer of the original orphan medicinal product is unable to supply sufficient quantities. Marketing authorization may also be granted to a similar medicinal product with the same orphan indication if the similar product is deemed safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior to the original orphan medicinal product. The period of market exclusivity granted in relation to the original orphan medicinal product may, in addition, be reduced to six years if it can be demonstrated, on the basis of available evidence, that the original orphan medicinal product is sufficiently profitable not to justify maintenance of market exclusivity. Defibrotide has been granted orphan drug designation by the EC for the treatment of VOD and prevention of GvHD until October 2023, by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety to treat and prevent VOD, and by the Commonwealth of Australia-Department of Health for the treatment of VOD. Vyxeos has been granted orphan drug designation by the EC until August 2028. We also received Orphan Designation from EMA’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products, or COMP, for Epidyolex for DS, LGS and TSC, and the COMP reconfirmed the designation for DS, LGS and TSC upon EC’s approval.
Pharmaceutical Pricing, Reimbursement by Government and Private Payors and Patient Access
Pricing and Reimbursement
Successful commercialization of our products depends in significant part on adequate financial coverage and reimbursement from third party payors, including governmental payors (such as the Medicaid and Medicare programs in the U.S.), managed care organizations and private health insurers. Third party payors decide which drugs will be reimbursed and establish reimbursement and co-pay levels and conditions for reimbursement. Third party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and services by examining their cost effectiveness, as demonstrated in pharmacoeconomic and/or clinical studies, in addition to their safety and efficacy. In some cases, for example, third party payors try to encourage the use of less expensive products, when available, through their prescription benefits coverage and reimbursement, co-pay and prior authorization policies. The process for determining whether a payor will provide coverage for a product may be separate from the process for setting the price or reimbursement rate that the payor will pay for the product once coverage is approved. Third party payors may require prior approval before covering a specific product, or may require patients and health care providers to try other covered products first. Third party payors may also limit coverage to specific products on an approved list, or formulary, which might not include all of the approved products for a particular indication. For
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certain categories of products, third party payors, principally through contracted pharmacy benefit managers, or PBMs, negotiate rebates with drug manufacturers for inclusion of products on their formularies in specific positions or coverage criteria. Beginning in the third quarter of 2019, we have been entering into agreements with certain PBMs or similar organizations to provide rebates for our products where coverage was provided and products were listed in certain formulary positions, among other conditions.
Medicaid is a joint federal and state program that is administered by the states for low‑income and disabled beneficiaries. Medicare is a federal program that is administered by the federal government covering individuals age 65 and over as well as those with certain disabilities. Medicare Part B pays physicians who administer our products. Under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, as a condition of having federal funds made available to the states for our drugs under Medicare Part B, we are required to pay a rebate to each state Medicaid program for our covered outpatient drugs that are dispensed to Medicaid beneficiaries and paid for by a state Medicaid program. Medicaid rebates are based on pricing data we report on a monthly and quarterly basis to the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, the federal agency that administers the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and Medicare. These data include the average manufacturer price and, in the case of innovator products, the best price for each drug which, in general, represents the lowest price available from the manufacturer to any entity in the U.S. in any pricing structure, calculated to include all applicable sales and associated rebates, discounts and other price concessions. If we become aware that our reporting for a prior quarter was incorrect, or has changed as a result of recalculation of the pricing data, we are obligated to resubmit the corrected data for up to three years after those data originally were due. We are required to provide average sales price, or ASP, information for certain of our products to CMS on a quarterly basis. The ASP is calculated based on a statutorily defined formula as well as regulations and interpretations of the statute by CMS. This information is used to compute Medicare payment rates, with rates for Medicare Part B drugs outside the hospital outpatient setting and in the hospital outpatient setting consisting of ASP plus a specified percentage.
Federal law requires that any company that participates in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program also participate in the Public Health Service’s 340B program, or the 340B program, in order for federal funds to be available for the manufacturer’s drugs under Medicaid and Medicare Part B. The 340B program, which is administered by the Health Resources and Services Administration, or HRSA, requires participating manufacturers to agree to charge statutorily defined covered entities no more than the 340B “ceiling price” for the manufacturer’s covered drugs used in an outpatient setting. These 340B covered entities include certain qualifying community health clinics, a variety of entities that receive health services grants from the Public Health Service, and multiple categories of hospitals, including children’s hospitals, critical access hospitals, free standing cancer hospitals and hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of low-income patients. The 340B ceiling price is calculated using a statutory formula, which is based on the average manufacturer price and rebate amount for the covered outpatient drug as calculated under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, and in general, products subject to Medicaid price reporting and rebate liability are also subject to the 340B ceiling price calculation and discount requirement. A regulation regarding the calculation of the 340B ceiling price and the imposition of civil monetary penalties on manufacturers that knowingly and intentionally overcharge covered entities became effective on January 1, 2019. We also are required to report our 340B ceiling prices to HRSA on a quarterly basis and HRSA then publishes them to 340B covered entities. In addition, legislation may be introduced that, if passed, would further expand the 340B program to additional covered entities or would require participating manufacturers to agree to provide 340B discounted pricing on drugs used in an inpatient setting.
A provision in The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 eliminates, effective January 2024, the statutory cap on rebates drug manufacturers are required to pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. Since 2010, the total Medicaid rebate amount a drug manufacturer is required to pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program has been capped at 100 percent of the Average Manufacturer Price. The elimination of the cap on rebates means that manufacturer discounts to Medicaid may rise beginning in 2024 and, in certain circumstances, rebates could exceed the amount that state Medicaid programs pay for the drug. This policy change will have the greatest impact on drugs whose prices have reached the 100 percent Average Manufacturer Price rebate cap. Further, on August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, into law, which, among other things, requires the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary to negotiate, with respect to Medicare units and subject to a specified cap, the price of a set number of certain high Medicare spend drugs and biologicals per year starting in 2026, penalizes manufacturers of certain Medicare Parts B and D drugs for price increases above inflation, and makes several changes to the Medicare Part D benefit, including a limit on annual out-of-pocket costs, and a change in manufacturer liability under the program, which could negatively affect our business and financial condition.
Effective January 2023, a provision of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act requires a manufacturer of single source drugs or biologicals in single-use packages or single dose containers to pay a refund on discarded amounts of drug under Medicare Part B where the discarded amount exceeds an applicable threshold.
In order to be eligible to have our products paid for with federal funds under the Medicaid and Medicare Part B programs and purchased by certain federal agencies and grantees, we also participate in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, or VA, Federal Supply Schedule, or FSS, pricing program. Under this program, we are obligated to make our products available for procurement on an FSS contract under which we must comply with standard government terms and conditions and charge a
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price to certain federal agencies that is no higher than the statutory Federal Ceiling Price, or FCP. The FCP is based on the non-federal average manufacturer price, or Non-FAMP, which we calculate and report to the VA on a quarterly and annual basis. We also participate in the Tricare Retail Pharmacy program, under which we pay quarterly rebates on utilization of innovator products that are dispensed through the Tricare Retail Pharmacy network to Tricare beneficiaries. The rebates are calculated as the difference between the annual Non-FAMP and FCP. Pricing and rebate calculations vary across products and programs, are complex, and are often subject to interpretation by us, governmental or regulatory agencies and the courts, which can change and evolve over time.
In addition, in the U.S., drug pricing by pharmaceutical companies is currently, and is expected to continue to be, under close scrutiny, including with respect to companies that have increased the price of products after acquiring those products from other companies. There are numerous ongoing efforts at the federal and state level seeking to indirectly or directly regulate drug prices to reduce overall healthcare costs using tools such as price ceilings, value-based pricing and increased transparency and disclosure obligations. Numerous states have passed or are considering legislation that requires or purports to require companies to report pricing information, including proprietary pricing information. For example, in 2017, California adopted a prescription drug price transparency state bill requiring advance notice of and an explanation for price increases of certain drugs that exceed a specified threshold. Similar bills have been previously introduced at the federal level and additional legislation could be introduced this year.
Similar to what is occurring in the U.S., political, economic and regulatory developments outside of the U.S. are also subjecting the healthcare industry to fundamental changes and challenges. Pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels continue to exist. In various EU member states we expect to be subject to continuous cost-cutting measures, such as voluntary and temporary sales rebates, lower maximum prices, lower or lack of reimbursement coverage and incentives to use cheaper, usually generic, products as an alternative. Health technology assessment, or HTA, of medicinal products is becoming an increasingly common part of the pricing and reimbursement procedures in some EU member states, including countries representing major markets. The HTA process, which is governed by the national laws of these countries, is the procedure according to which the assessment of the public health impact, therapeutic impact and the economic and societal impact of use of a given medicinal product in the national healthcare systems of the individual country is conducted. HTA generally compares attributes of individual medicinal products, as compared with other treatment options available on the market. The outcome of HTA regarding specific medicinal products will often influence the pricing and reimbursement status granted to these medicinal products by the competent authorities of individual EU member states. In December 2021, the EC adopted a HTA regulation intended to boost cooperation among EU member states in assessing health technologies, including new medicinal products. The regulation will apply to all EU member states from January 2025 provides that EU member states will be able to use common HTA tools, methodologies, and procedures across the EU. Individual EU member states will continue to be responsible for drawing conclusions on the overall value of a new health technology for their healthcare system, and pricing and reimbursement decisions.
In the EU, our products are marketed through various channels and within different legal frameworks. The making available or placing on the EU market of unauthorized medicinal products is generally prohibited. However, the competent authorities of the EU member states may exceptionally and temporarily allow and reimburse the supply of such unauthorized products, either on a named patient basis or through a compassionate use process, to individual patients or a group of patients with a chronically or seriously debilitating disease or whose disease is considered to be life-threatening, and who cannot be treated satisfactorily by an authorized medicinal product. Such reimbursement may no longer be available if authorization for named patient or compassionate use programs expire or is terminated or if marketing authorization is granted for the product. In some EU member states, authorization and reimbursement policies may also delay commercialization of our products, or may adversely affect our ability to sell our products on a profitable basis. After initial price and reimbursement approvals, reductions in prices and changes in reimbursement levels can be triggered by multiple factors, including reference pricing systems and publication of discounts by third party payors or authorities in other countries. In the EU, prices can be reduced further by parallel distribution and parallel trade, or arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced EU member states.
For more information, including with respect to recent legal developments regarding the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, Medicare Part B, and the 340B program, see the risk factors under the headings “Adequate coverage and reimbursement from third party payors may not be available for our products and we may be unable to successfully contract for coverage from pharmacy benefit managers and group purchasing organizations, which could diminish our sales or affect our ability to sell our products profitably; conversely, to secure coverage from these organizations, we may be required to pay rebates or other discounts or other restrictions to reimbursement that could diminish our sales,”The pricing of pharmaceutical products has come under increasing scrutiny as part of a global trend toward healthcare cost containment and resulting changes in healthcare law and policy may impact our business in ways that we cannot currently predict, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition” and “If we fail to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program or other governmental pricing programs, we could be subject to additional reimbursement requirements, penalties, sanctions and fines, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
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Patient Copay Assistance and Free Product Programs
We have various patient programs to help patients access and pay for our products, including co-pay coupons for certain products, services that help patients determine their insurance coverage for our products, and a free product program. We also make grants to independent charitable foundations that help financially needy patients with their premium, and co-pay and co-insurance obligations. There has been enhanced scrutiny of company-sponsored patient assistance programs, including co-pay assistance programs and donations to third-party charities that provide such assistance, as well as reimbursement support offerings.
The OIG has established guidelines for pharmaceutical manufacturers who make donations to charitable organizations providing co-pay assistance to Medicare patients. Such donations are unlikely to run afoul of the anti-kickback laws provided that the organizations receiving donations, among other things, are bona fide charities, are entirely independent of and not controlled by the manufacturer, provide aid to applicants on a first-come basis according to consistent financial criteria, and do not link aid to use of a donor’s product. In 2016 and 2017, we received subpoenas from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Massachusetts requesting documents related to our support of charitable organizations that provide financial assistance to Medicare patients. In April 2019, we finalized our civil settlement agreement with the DOJ and OIG, and entered into a corporate integrity agreement requiring us to maintain our ongoing corporate compliance program and obligating us to implement or continue, as applicable, a set of defined corporate integrity activities to ensure compliance with OIG’s policies around charitable contributions for a period of five years from the effective date of the corporate integrity agreement.
About Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc was formed under the laws of Ireland (registered number 399192) as a private limited liability company in March 2005 under the name Azur Pharma Limited and was subsequently re-registered as a public limited company under the name Azur Pharma Public Limited Company, or Azur Pharma, in October 2011. On January 18, 2012, the businesses of Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Azur Pharma were combined in a merger transaction, in connection with which Azur Pharma was re-named Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc and we became the parent company of and successor to Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Our predecessor, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc., was incorporated in California in March 2003 and was reincorporated in Delaware in January 2004.
Available Information
The mailing address of our headquarters is Fifth Floor, Waterloo Exchange, Waterloo Road, Dublin 4, Ireland, and our telephone number at that location is 353-1-634-7800. Our website is www.jazzpharmaceuticals.com.
We file or furnish pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as applicable, our Annual Reports on Form 10‑K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, amendments to those reports, proxy statements and other information electronically with the SEC. Through a link on our website, we make copies of our periodic and current reports, amendments to those reports, proxy statements and other information available, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
Item 1A.Risk Factors
We have identified the following risks and uncertainties that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. The risks described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. Our business could be harmed by any of these risks. The trading price of our ordinary shares could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. In assessing these risks, you should also refer to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K, including our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes.
Risks Related to Our Lead Products and Product Candidates
Our inability to maintain or increase sales from our oxybate franchise would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Historically, our business has been substantially dependent on Xyrem and our financial results have been significantly influenced by sales of Xyrem. Our operating plan assumes that Xywav, our oxybate product launched in November 2020, will remain the treatment of choice for patients who can benefit from oxybate treatment. While we expect that our business will continue to be substantially dependent on oxybate product sales, there is no guarantee that we can maintain oxybate sales at or near historical levels, or that oxybate sales will continue to grow. In this regard, our ability to maintain or increase oxybate product sales and realize the anticipated benefits from our investment in Xywav are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties as discussed in greater detail below, including those related to the launch of Xywav for the treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia, or IH, in adults and adoption in that indication; competition from the recent introduction of an authorized generic
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version of sodium oxybate and in the future from additional authorized generic versions of sodium oxybate and generic versions of sodium oxybate and new products for treatment of cataplexy and/or excessive daytime sleepiness, or EDS, in narcolepsy in the U.S. market and from other competitors; increased pricing pressure from, changes in policies by, or restrictions on reimbursement imposed by, third party payors, including our ability to maintain adequate coverage and reimbursement for Xywav and Xyrem; increased rebates required to maintain access to our products; challenges to our intellectual property around Xyrem and/or Xywav, including from pending antitrust and intellectual property litigation; and continued acceptance of Xywav and Xyrem by physicians and patients. A significant decline in oxybate sales could cause us to reduce our operating expenses or seek to raise additional funds, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects, including on our ability to acquire, in-license or develop new products to grow our business.
The introduction of new products in the U.S. market that compete with, or otherwise disrupt the market for, our oxybate products and product candidates would adversely affect sales of our oxybate products and product candidates.
New treatment options for cataplexy and EDS in narcolepsy have been commercially launched, and in the future, other products may be launched that are competitive with or disrupt the market for our oxybate products.
Nine companies have sent us notices that they had filed abbreviated new drug applications, or ANDAs, seeking approval to market a generic version of Xyrem, and we have filed and settled patent lawsuits with all nine companies. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, has approved or tentatively approved four of these ANDAs, and we believe that it is likely that FDA will approve or tentatively approve some or all of the others. Pursuant to our patent litigation settlement with the first filer, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC, or Hikma, Hikma launched an authorized generic product, or AG Product, in the U.S. beginning on January 1, 2023. Accordingly, beginning in January 2023, Xywav and Xyrem face competition from an authorized generic version of sodium oxybate and in the future, we expect to compete with other authorized generic and generic versions of sodium oxybate. Hikma has a right to elect to continue to sell the Hikma AG Product, with royalties back to us, for a total of up to five years. We will receive a meaningful royalty from Hikma on net sales of the Hikma AG Product, with the royalty rate increasing during the initial six month term based on increased net sales of the Hikma AG Product; if Hikma elects to extend the term for the remainder of the first year, the rate will become fixed. There will also be a substantial increase in the royalty rate should the term be extended beyond one year. We will also be paid for supply of the Hikma AG Product and will be reimbursed by Hikma for a portion of the services costs associated with the operation of the Xywav and Xyrem REMS and distribution of the Hikma AG Product. We also granted Hikma a license to launch its own generic sodium oxybate product as early as six months after it has the right to sell the Hikma AG Product, but if it elects to launch its own generic product, Hikma will no longer have the right to sell the Hikma AG Product. In our settlements with Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC, or Amneal, Lupin Inc., or Lupin, and Par Pharmaceutical, Inc., or Par, we granted each party the right to sell a limited volume of an AG Product in the U.S. beginning on July 1, 2023 and ending on December 31, 2025, with royalties back to us. AG Products will be distributed through the same risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, as Xywav and Xyrem. We also granted each of Amneal, Lupin and Par a license to launch its own generic sodium oxybate product under its ANDA on or after December 31, 2025, or earlier under certain circumstances, including the circumstance where Hikma elects to launch its own generic product. If Amneal, Lupin or Par elects to launch its own generic product under such circumstance, it will no longer have the right to sell an AG Product. In our settlements with each of the other five ANDA filers, we granted each a license to launch its own generic sodium oxybate product under its ANDA on or after December 31, 2025, or earlier under certain circumstances, including circumstances where Hikma launches its own generic sodium oxybate product. It is possible that additional companies may file ANDAs seeking to market a generic version of Xyrem which could lead to additional patent litigation or challenges with respect to Xyrem.
Any ANDA holder launching an AG Product or another generic sodium oxybate product will independently establish the price of the AG Product and/or its own generic sodium oxybate product and determine the types of discounts or rebates they will offer parties that purchase or pay for the product. Generic competition often results in decreases in the net prices at which branded products can be sold. A component of drug pricing is the manufacturer’s list price for a drug to wholesalers or direct purchasers in the U.S. (without discounts, rebates or other reductions) referred to as the Wholesale Acquisition Cost, or WAC. In this regard, Hikma launched the Hikma AG Product at a WAC that was less than 15% lower than the WAC for Xyrem. After any introduction of a generic product, whether or not it is an AG Product, a significant percentage of the prescriptions written for Xyrem will likely be filled with the generic product. Certain U.S. state laws allow for, and in some instances in the absence of specific instructions from the prescribing physician mandate, the dispensing of generic products rather than branded products when a generic version is available. This would result in reduction in sales of, and revenue from, Xyrem, although we would continue to receive royalties and other revenue based on sales of an AG Product in accordance with the terms of our settlement agreements.
Other companies may develop sodium oxybate products for treatment of narcolepsy, using an alternative formulation or a different delivery technology, and seek approval in the U.S. using a new drug application, or NDA, approval pathway under Section 505(b)(2) and referencing the safety and efficacy data for Xyrem. For example, in July 2022, Avadel Pharmaceuticals plc, or Avadel, announced that it had received tentative approval of FT218, an extended-release formulation of sodium oxybate
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which uses its proprietary technology for the treatment of EDS and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy, and pending disposition of our REMS patent, Avadel stated that it is seeking to accelerate full approval. For additional information on litigation involving this matter, see “Avadel Patent Litigation” in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. Moreover, Avadel has announced that it has obtained an orphan drug designation from FDA related to its extended-release sodium oxybate formulation. To obtain approval in light of the prior approval of our oxybate products and to obtain its own Orphan Drug Exclusivity for FT218 if approved, we believe Avadel will have to show clinical superiority to Xywav, which requires establishing that FT218 has greater effectiveness, greater safety, or otherwise makes a major contribution to patient care when compared to our products. We cannot predict the timing of full approval of Avadel’s sodium oxybate product or how FDA will evaluate any clinical superiority arguments that either we or Avadel may make, but in any event, we expect to face competition from Avadel.
Xyrem and Xywav also face increased competition from new branded entrants to treat EDS in narcolepsy such as pitolisant. Other companies have announced that they have product candidates in various phases of development to treat the symptoms of narcolepsy, such as Axsome Therapeutics, Inc.’s reboxetine, and various companies are performing research and development on orexin agonists for the treatment of sleep disorders.
We expect that Xywav for the treatment of both cataplexy and EDS in patients with narcolepsy will continue to face competition from generic or authorized generic sodium oxybate products or new branded entrants in narcolepsy notwithstanding FDA recognizing Orphan Drug Exclusivity for Xywav. For example, we received notice in June 2021 that Lupin filed an ANDA for a generic version of Xywav. Additional companies may file ANDAs seeking to market a generic version of Xywav which could lead to additional patent litigation or challenges with respect to Xywav.
Moreover, non-oxybate products intended for the treatment of EDS or cataplexy in narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia, or IH, including new market entrants, even if not directly competitive with Xywav or Xyrem, could have the effect of changing treatment regimens and payor or formulary coverage of Xywav or Xyrem in favor of other products, and indirectly materially and adversely affect sales of Xywav and Xyrem. Examples of such new market entrants include pitolisant, a drug that was approved by FDA in 2019 for the treatment of EDS in adult patients with narcolepsy and approved by FDA in 2020 for an adult cataplexy indication in the U.S. Pitolisant has also been approved and marketed in Europe to treat adult patients with narcolepsy, with or without cataplexy, and to treat EDS in obstructive sleep apnea. Pitolisant is also in late stage development for the treatment of IH. In addition, we are also aware that prescribers often prescribe branded or generic medications for cataplexy, before or instead of prescribing oxybate therapy in Xywav and Xyrem, and that payors often require patients to try such medications before they will cover Xywav or Xyrem, even if they are not approved for this use. Examples of such products are described in “Business—Competition” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
We expect that the approval and launch of the Hikma AG Product, another AG Product or other generic version of Xyrem and the approval and launch of any other sodium oxybate product (including Avadel’s FT218) or alternative product that treats narcolepsy could have a material adverse effect on our sales of Xywav and Xyrem and on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
The distribution and sale of our oxybate products are subject to significant regulatory restrictions, including the requirements of a REMS and safety reporting requirements, and these regulatory and safety requirements subject us to risks and uncertainties, any of which could negatively impact sales of Xywav and Xyrem.
The active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, of Xywav and Xyrem, is a form of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, or GHB, a central nervous system depressant known to be associated with facilitated sexual assault as well as with respiratory depression and other serious side effects. As a result, FDA requires that we maintain a REMS with elements to assure safe use, or ETASU, for Xywav and Xyrem to help ensure that the benefits of the drug in the treatment of cataplexy and EDS in narcolepsy outweigh the serious risks of the drug. The REMS imposes extensive controls and restrictions on the sales and marketing of Xywav and Xyrem that we are responsible for implementing. Any failure to demonstrate our substantial compliance with our REMS obligations, or a determination by FDA that the REMS is not meeting its goals, could result in enforcement action by FDA, lead to changes in our REMS obligations, negatively affect sales of Xywav or Xyrem, result in additional costs and expenses for us and/or require us to invest a significant amount of resources, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
FDA will evaluate the Xywav and Xyrem REMS on an ongoing basis and will require modifications as may be appropriate. We cannot predict whether FDA will request, seek to require or ultimately require modifications to, or impose additional requirements on, the Xywav and Xyrem REMS, including in connection with the submission of new oxybate products or indications, the introduction of authorized generics, or to accommodate generics, or whether FDA will approve modifications to the Xywav and Xyrem REMS that we consider warranted. Any modifications approved, required or rejected by FDA could change the safety profile of Xywav or Xyrem, and have a significant negative impact in terms of product liability, public acceptance of Xywav or Xyrem as a treatment for cataplexy and EDS in narcolepsy, and prescribers’
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willingness to prescribe, and patients’ willingness to take, Xywav or Xyrem, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our oxybate business. Modifications approved, required or rejected by FDA could also make it more difficult or expensive for us to distribute Xywav or Xyrem, make distribution easier for oxybate competitors, disrupt continuity of care for Xywav or Xyrem patients and/or negatively affect sales of Xywav or Xyrem.
We depend on outside vendors, including Express Scripts Specialty Distribution Services, Inc., the central certified pharmacy, to distribute Xywav and Xyrem in the U.S., provide patient support services and implement the requirements of the Xywav and Xyrem REMS. If the central pharmacy fails to meet the requirements of the Xywav and Xyrem REMS applicable to the central pharmacy or otherwise does not fulfill its contractual obligations to us, moves to terminate our agreement, refuses or fails to adequately serve patients, or fails to promptly and adequately address operational challenges or challenges in implementing REMS modifications, the fulfillment of Xywav or Xyrem prescriptions and our sales would be adversely affected. If we change to a new central pharmacy, new contracts might be required with government payors and other insurers who pay for Xywav or Xyrem, and the terms of any new contracts could be less favorable to us than current agreements. In addition, any new central pharmacy would need to be registered with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA, and certified under the REMS and would also need to implement the particular processes, procedures and activities necessary to distribute under the Xywav and Xyrem REMS. Transitioning to a new pharmacy could result in product shortages, which would negatively affect sales of Xywav and Xyrem, result in additional costs and expenses for us and/or take a significant amount of time, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
In its approval of Hikma’s ANDA, FDA waived the requirement of a single shared REMS between the brand drug and generic versions, approving Hikma’s ANDA with a generic sodium oxybate REMS separate from the Xywav and Xyrem REMS, except for the requirement that the generic sodium oxybate REMS program pharmacies contact the Xywav and Xyrem REMS by phone to verify and report certain information. The generic sodium oxybate REMS was approved with the condition that it be open to all future sponsors of ANDAs or NDAs for sodium oxybate products. A sodium oxybate distribution system that is less restrictive than the Xywav and Xyrem REMS, such as the generic sodium oxybate REMS or another branded sodium oxybate REMS, could increase the risks associated with oxybate distribution. Because patients, consumers and others may not differentiate generic sodium oxybate from Xyrem or differentiate between the different REMS programs, any negative outcomes, including risks to the public, caused by or otherwise related to a separate sodium oxybate REMS, could have a significant negative impact in terms of product liability, our reputation and good will, public acceptance of Xywav or Xyrem as a treatment for cataplexy and EDS in narcolepsy, and prescribers’ willingness to prescribe, and patients’ willingness to take, Xywav or Xyrem, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our oxybate business.
We may face pressure to further modify the Xywav and Xyrem REMS or to license or share intellectual property pertinent to that REMS, including proprietary data required for the safe distribution of sodium oxybate, in connection with FDA’s approval of the generic sodium oxybate REMS or another oxybate REMS that may be submitted or approved in the future. Our settlement agreements with ANDA filers do not directly impact FDA’s waiver of the single shared system REMS requirement, any other ANDA or NDA filer’s ability to develop and implement the generic sodium oxybate REMS for its sodium oxybate product, or our ability to take any action with respect to the safety of the generic sodium oxybate REMS. We cannot predict the outcome or impact on our business of any future action that we may take with respect to FDA’s waiver of the single shared system REMS requirement, its approval and tentative approval of generic versions of sodium oxybate or the consequences of distribution of sodium oxybate through the generic sodium oxybate REMS approved by FDA or another separate REMS.
REMS programs have increasingly drawn public scrutiny from the U.S. Congress, the Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, and FDA, with allegations that such programs are used as a means of improperly blocking or delaying competition. In December 2019, as part of the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2020, the U.S. Congress passed legislation known as the Creating and Restoring Equal Access To Equivalent Samples Act, or CREATES. CREATES is intended to prevent companies from using REMS and other restricted distribution programs as a means to deny potential competitors access to product samples that are reasonably necessary to conduct testing in support of an application that references a listed drug or biologic, and provides such potential competitors a potential private right of action if the innovator fails to timely provide samples upon request. CREATES also grants FDA additional authority regarding approval of generic products with REMS. A further example of continued interest in REMS oversight came from the USPTO in collaboration with FDA in November 2022, when they published a Request for Comment, or RFC, in the Federal Register that asked, “What policy considerations or concerns should the USPTO and the FDA explore in relation to the patenting of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies associated with certain FDA-approved products?” The comments for this RFC closed on February 6, 2023.
It is possible that the FTC, FDA or other governmental authorities could claim that, or launch an investigation into whether, we are using our REMS programs in an anticompetitive manner or have engaged in other anticompetitive practices, whether under CREATES or otherwise. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act further states that a REMS ETASU shall
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not be used by an NDA holder to block or delay generic drugs or drugs covered by an application under Section 505(b)(2) from entering the market. In its 2015 letter approving the Xyrem REMS, FDA expressed concern that we were aware that the Xyrem REMS is blocking competition. From June 2020 to May 2022, we were served with a number of lawsuits that included allegations that we had used the Xyrem REMS to delay approval of generic sodium oxybate. In December 2020, these cases were centralized and transferred to the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, where the multidistrict litigation will proceed for the purpose of discovery and pre-trial proceedings. For additional information on these lawsuits, see Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. It is possible that additional lawsuits will be filed against us making similar or related allegations or that governmental authorities could commence an investigation. We cannot predict the outcome of these or potential additional lawsuits; however, if the plaintiffs were to be successful in their claims, they may be entitled to injunctive relief or we may be required to pay significant monetary damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Pharmaceutical companies, including their agents and employees, are required to monitor adverse events occurring during the use of their products and report them to FDA. The patient counseling and monitoring requirements of the Xywav and Xyrem REMS provide more extensive information about adverse events experienced by patients taking Xywav and Xyrem, including deaths, than is generally available for other products that are not subject to similar REMS requirements. As required by FDA and other regulatory agencies, the adverse event information that we collect for Xywav and Xyrem is regularly reported to FDA and could result in FDA requiring changes to Xywav and/or Xyrem labeling, including additional warnings or additional boxed warnings, or requiring us to take other actions that could have an adverse effect on patient and prescriber acceptance of Xywav and Xyrem. As required by FDA, Xywav’s and Xyrem’s current labeling includes a boxed warning regarding the risk of central nervous system depression and misuse and abuse.
Any failure to demonstrate our substantial compliance with the REMS or any other applicable regulatory requirements to the satisfaction of FDA or another regulatory authority could result in such regulatory authorities taking actions in the future which could have a material adverse effect on oxybate product sales and therefore on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our inability to maintain or increase sales of Epidiolex/Epidyolex would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our ability to maintain or increase sales of Epidiolex/Epidyolex (cannabidiol) is subject to many risks. There are many factors that could cause the commercialization of Epidiolex to be unsuccessful, including a number of factors that are outside our control. The commercial success of Epidiolex depends on the extent to which patients and physicians accept and adopt Epidiolex as a treatment for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, Dravet syndrome and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, and we do not know whether our or others’ estimates in this regard will be accurate. Physicians may not prescribe Epidiolex and patients may be unwilling to use Epidiolex if coverage is not provided or reimbursement is inadequate to cover a significant portion of the cost. Additionally, any negative development for Epidiolex in the market, in clinical development for additional indications, or in regulatory processes in other jurisdictions, may adversely impact the commercial results and potential of Epidiolex. In the future, we expect Epidiolex to face competition from generic cannabinoids. In November and December 2022, we received notices from various ANDA filers that they have each filed with FDA an ANDA for a generic version of Epidiolex (cannabidiol) oral solution. In January 2023, we filed patent infringement suits against these ANDA filers. As a result of these lawsuits, a stay of approval of up to 30 months will be imposed by FDA on these ANDA filers. For additional information see “Epidiolex Patent Litigation” in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
While we expect our oxybate products and Epidiolex/Epidyolex to remain our largest products, our success also depends on our ability to effectively commercialize our other existing products and potential future products.
In addition to Xywav, Xyrem, Epidiolex/Epidyolex and our other neuroscience products and product candidates, we are commercializing a portfolio of products, including our other lead marketed products, Zepzelca, Rylaze, Vyxeos and Defitelio. An inability to effectively commercialize our other lead marketed products and to maximize their potential where possible through successful research and development activities could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from our investment in Zepzelca is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including our ability to successfully commercialize Zepzelca in the U.S. and Canada; adequate supply of Zepzelca to meet demand; availability of favorable treatment pathway designations pricing and adequate coverage and reimbursement; the limited experience of, and need to educate, physicians in the use of Zepzelca for the treatment of metastatic small cell lung cancer, or SCLC; the potential for negative trial data read-outs in ongoing or future Zepzelca clinical trials; our and Pharma Mar, S.A., or PharmaMar’s, ability to maintain accelerated approval or successfully complete a confirmatory study of Zepzelca; and our ability to educate health care providers about Zepzelca in the treatment of relapsed, metastatic SCLC in the U.S. and
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patients’ access to lung cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from our investments in Rylaze is subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to successfully commercialize Rylaze in the U.S. including creating awareness among health care professionals and ensuring that patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma will be given the appropriate course of therapy and dosing regimen based on current FDA approval. Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from our investment in Vyxeos is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including our ability to differentiate Vyxeos from other liposomal chemotherapies and generically available chemotherapy combinations with which physicians and treatment centers are more familiar; acceptance by hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committees in the U.S., the EU and other countries; the increasing complexity of the acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, landscape requiring changes in patient identification and treatment selection, including diagnostic tests and monitoring that clinicians may find challenging to incorporate; the use of new and novel compounds in AML that are either used off-label or are only approved for use in combination with other agents and that have not been tested in combination with Vyxeos; the increasing use of venetoclax, which received full FDA approval in October 2020 for AML treatment; the limited size of the population of high-risk AML patients who may potentially be indicated for treatment with Vyxeos; the availability of adequate coverage, pricing and reimbursement approvals; and competition from new and existing products and potential competition from products in development. Our ability to maintain and grow sales and to realize the anticipated benefits from our investment in Defitelio is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including continued acceptance by hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committees in the U.S., the EU and other countries; the continued availability of favorable pricing and adequate coverage and reimbursement; the limited experience of, and need to educate, physicians and other health care providers in recognizing, diagnosing and treating hepatic veno-occlusive disease, or VOD, particularly in adults; the possibility that physicians recognizing VOD symptoms may not initiate or may delay initiation of treatment while waiting for those symptoms to improve, or may terminate treatment before the end of the recommended dosing schedule; and the limited size of the population of VOD patients who are indicated for treatment with Defitelio (particularly if changes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation treatment protocols reduce the incidence of VOD diagnosis and demand for Defitelio).
We face substantial competition from other companies, including companies with larger sales organizations and more experience working with large and diverse product portfolios, and competition from generic drugs.
Our products compete, and our product candidates may in the future compete, with currently existing therapies, including authorized generic and generic drugs, product candidates currently under development by us and others and/or future product candidates, including new chemical entities that may be safer or more effective or more convenient than our products. Any products that we develop may be commercialized in competitive markets, and our competitors, which include large global pharmaceutical companies and small research-based companies and institutions, may succeed in developing products that render our products obsolete or noncompetitive. Many of our competitors, particularly large pharmaceutical and life sciences companies, have substantially greater financial, operational and human resources than we do. Smaller or earlier stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through focused development programs and collaborative arrangements with large, established companies. In addition, many of our competitors deploy more personnel to market and sell their products than we do, and we compete with other companies to recruit, hire, train and retain pharmaceutical sales and marketing personnel. If our sales force and sales support organization are not appropriately resourced and sized to adequately promote our products, the commercial potential of our current and any future products may be diminished. In any event, the commercial potential of our current products and any future products may be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop or acquire and commercialize generic or branded products that are safer or more effective, are more convenient or are less expensive than our products. If we are unable to compete successfully, our commercial opportunities will be reduced and our business, results of operations and financial conditions may be materially harmed.
For a description of the competition that our lead marketed products and most advanced product candidates face or may face, see the discussion in “Business—Competition” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K and the risk factor under the heading “The introduction of new products in the U.S. market that compete with, or otherwise disrupt the market for, our oxybate products and product candidates would adversely affect sales of our oxybate products and product candidates” in this Part I, Item 1A.
Adequate coverage and reimbursement from third party payors may not be available for our products and we may be unable to successfully contract for coverage from pharmacy benefit managers and other organizations; conversely, to secure coverage from these organizations, we may be required to pay rebates or other discounts or other restrictions to reimbursement, either of which could diminish our sales or adversely affect our ability to sell our products profitably.
In both U.S. and non-U.S. markets, our ability to successfully commercialize and achieve market acceptance of our products depends in significant part on adequate financial coverage and reimbursement from third party payors, including governmental payors (such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs in the U.S.), managed care organizations and private health insurers. Without third party payor reimbursement, patients may not be able to obtain or afford prescribed medications. In addition, reimbursement guidelines and incentives provided to prescribing physicians by third party payors may have a significant impact on the prescribing physicians’ willingness and ability to prescribe our products. The demand for, and the
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profitability of, our products could be materially harmed if state Medicaid programs, the Medicare program, other healthcare programs in the U.S. or elsewhere, or third party commercial payors in the U.S. or elsewhere deny reimbursement for our products, limit the indications for which our products will be reimbursed, or provide reimbursement only on unfavorable terms.
As part of the overall trend toward cost containment, third party payors often require prior authorization for, and require reauthorization for continuation of, prescription products or impose step edits, which require prior use of another medication, usually a generic or preferred brand, prior to approving coverage for a new or more expensive product. Such restrictive conditions for reimbursement and an increase in reimbursement-related activities can extend the time required to fill prescriptions and may discourage patients from seeking treatment. We cannot predict actions that third party payors may take, or whether they will limit the access and level of reimbursement for our products or refuse to provide any approvals or coverage. From time to time, third party payors have refused to provide reimbursement for our products, and others may do so in the future.
Third party payors increasingly examine the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical products, in addition to their safety and efficacy, when making coverage and reimbursement decisions. We may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic and/or clinical studies in order to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of our products. If our competitors offer their products at prices that provide purportedly lower treatment costs than our products, or otherwise suggest that their products are safer, more effective or more cost-effective than our products, this may result in a greater level of access for their products relative to our products, which would reduce our sales and harm our results of operations. In some cases, for example, third party payors try to encourage the use of less expensive generic products through their prescription benefit coverage and reimbursement and co-pay policies. Because some of our products compete in a market with both branded and generic products, obtaining and maintaining access and reimbursement coverage for our products may be more challenging than for products that are new chemical entities for which no therapeutic alternatives exist.
Third party pharmacy benefit managers, or PBMs, other similar organizations and payors can limit coverage to specific products on an approved list, or formulary, which might not include all of the approved products for a particular indication, and to exclude drugs from their formularies in favor of competitor drugs or alternative treatments, or place drugs on formulary tiers with higher patient co-pay obligations, and/or to mandate stricter utilization criteria. Formulary exclusion effectively encourages patients and providers to seek alternative treatments, make a complex and time-intensive request for medical exemptions, or pay 100% of the cost of a drug. In addition, in many instances, certain PBMs, other similar organizations and third party payors may exert negotiating leverage by requiring incremental rebates, discounts or other concessions from manufacturers in order to maintain formulary positions, which could continue to result in higher gross to net deductions for affected products. In this regard, we have entered into agreements with PBMs and payor accounts to provide rebates to those entities related to formulary coverage for our products, but we cannot guarantee that we will be able to agree to coverage terms with other PBMs and other third party payors. Payors could decide to exclude our products from formulary coverage lists, impose step edits that require patients to try alternative, including generic, treatments before authorizing payment for our products, limit the types of diagnoses for which coverage will be provided or impose a moratorium on coverage for products while the payor makes a coverage decision. An inability to maintain adequate formulary positions could increase patient cost-sharing for our products and cause some patients to determine not to use our products. Any delays or unforeseen difficulties in reimbursement approvals could limit patient access, depress therapy adherence rates, and adversely impact our ability to successfully commercialize our products. If we are unsuccessful in maintaining broad coverage for our products, our anticipated revenue from and growth prospects for our products could be negatively affected.
In many countries outside the U.S., procedures to obtain price approvals, coverage and reimbursement can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing authorization. Many European countries periodically review their reimbursement of medicinal products, which could have an adverse impact on reimbursement status. In addition, we expect that legislators, policymakers and healthcare insurance funds in the EU member states will continue to propose and implement cost-containing measures, such as lower maximum prices, lower or lack of reimbursement coverage and incentives to use cheaper, usually generic, products as an alternative to branded products, and/or branded products available through parallel import to keep healthcare costs down. Moreover, in order to obtain reimbursement for our products in some European countries, including some EU member states, we may be required to compile additional data comparing the cost-effectiveness of our products to other available therapies. Health Technology Assessment, or HTA, of medicinal products is becoming an increasingly common part of the pricing and reimbursement procedures in some EU member states, including those representing the larger markets. The HTA process, which is currently governed by national laws in each EU member state, is the procedure to assess therapeutic, economic and societal impact of a given medicinal product in the national healthcare systems of the individual country. The outcome of an HTA will often influence the pricing and reimbursement status granted to these medicinal products by the competent authorities of individual EU member states. The extent to which pricing and reimbursement decisions are influenced by the HTA of the specific medicinal product currently varies between EU member states, although beginning in January 2025, the EU HTA regulation will apply; this regulation aims to harmonize the clinical benefit assessment of HTA across the EU. If we are unable to maintain favorable pricing and reimbursement status in EU member states that represent significant markets, our anticipated revenue from and growth prospects for our products in the EU
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could be negatively affected. For example, the European Commission, or EC, granted marketing authorization for Vyxeos in August 2018 and for Epidyolex in September 2019, and, as part of our rolling launches of Vyxeos and Epidyolex in Europe, we are making pricing and reimbursement submissions in European countries. If we experience setbacks or unforeseen difficulties in obtaining favorable pricing and reimbursement decisions, including as a result of regulatory review delays, planned launches in the affected EU member states would be delayed, which could negatively impact anticipated revenue from and growth prospects for Vyxeos and Epidyolex.
The pricing of pharmaceutical products has come under increasing scrutiny as part of a global trend toward healthcare cost containment and resulting changes in healthcare law and policy, including recently enacted changes to Medicare, may impact our business in ways that we cannot currently predict, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Political, economic and regulatory influences are subjecting the healthcare industry in the U.S. to fundamental changes, particularly given the current atmosphere of mounting criticism of prescription drug costs in the U.S. We expect there will continue to be legislative and regulatory proposals to change the healthcare system in ways that could impact our ability to sell our products profitably, as governmental oversight and scrutiny of biopharmaceutical companies is increasing. For example, we anticipate that the U.S. Congress, state legislatures, and federal and state regulators may adopt or accelerate adoption of new healthcare policies and reforms intended to curb healthcare costs, such as federal and state controls on reimbursement for drugs (including under Medicare, Medicaid and commercial health plans), new or increased requirements to pay prescription drug rebates and penalties to government health care programs, and additional pharmaceutical cost transparency policies that aim to require drug companies to justify their prices through required disclosures. Further, on August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, into law, which, among other things, requires the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary to negotiate, with respect to Medicare units and subject to a specified cap, the price of a set number of certain high Medicare spend drugs and biologicals per year starting in 2026, penalizes manufacturers of certain Medicare Parts B and D drugs for price increases above inflation, and makes several changes to the Medicare Part D benefit, including a limit on annual out-of-pocket costs, and a change in manufacturer liability under the program, which could negatively affect our business and financial condition. In addition, under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, rebates owed by manufacturers are currently capped at 100 percent of average manufacturer price, but, effective January 1, 2024, this cap will be lifted, which could adversely affect our rebate liability.
Legislative and regulatory proposals that have recently been considered include, among other things, proposals to limit the terms of patent litigation settlements with generic sponsors, to define certain conduct around patenting and new product development as unfair competition, to address the scope of orphan drug exclusivity and to facilitate the importation of drugs into the U.S. from other countries. Legislative and regulatory proposals to reform the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry and reimbursement for pharmaceutical drugs are continually changing, and all such considerations may adversely affect our business and industry in ways that we cannot accurately predict.
There is also ongoing activity related to health care coverage. The Affordable Care Act substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. These changes impacted previously existing government healthcare programs and have resulted in the development of new programs, including Medicare payment-for-performance initiatives. Further, federal policy makers have taken and are expected to continue to try to take steps towards expanding health care coverage beyond the Affordable Care Act, which could have ramifications for the pharmaceutical industry. Additional legislative changes, regulatory changes, or guidance could be adopted, which may impact the marketing approvals and reimbursement for our products and product candidates. For example, there has been increasing legislative, regulatory, and enforcement interest in the U.S. with respect to drug pricing practices. There have been several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation and regulatory initiatives designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, evaluate the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government healthcare program reimbursement methodologies for drug products beyond the changes enacted by the IRA.
If new healthcare policies or reforms intended to curb healthcare costs are adopted or if we experience negative publicity with respect to pricing of our products or the pricing of pharmaceutical drugs generally, the prices that we charge for our products may be affected, our commercial opportunity may be limited and/or our revenues from sales of our products may be negatively impacted. We have periodically increased the price of our products, including Xywav and Xyrem most recently in January 2023, and there is no guarantee that we will make similar price adjustments to our products in the future or that price adjustments we have taken or may take in the future will not negatively affect our sales volumes and revenues. There is no guarantee that such price adjustments will not negatively affect our reputation and our ability to secure and maintain reimbursement coverage for our products, which could limit the prices that we charge for our products, limit the commercial opportunities for our products and/or negatively impact revenues from sales of our products.
Government investigations or U.S. Congressional oversight with respect to drug pricing or our other business practices could cause us to incur significant expense and could distract us from the operation of our business and execution of our
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strategy. Any such investigation or hearing could also result in reduced market acceptance and demand for our products, could harm our reputation and our ability to market our products in the future, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. For example, in July 2022, we received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Massachusetts requesting documents related to Xyrem and U.S. Patent No. 8,772,306 (“Method of Administration of Gamma Hydroxybutyrate with Monocarboxylate Transporters”), product labeling changes for Xyrem, communications with FDA and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, pricing of Xyrem, and other related documents. For more information, see the risk factor under the heading “We are subject to significant ongoing regulatory obligations and oversight, which may subject us to civil or criminal proceedings, investigations, or penalties and may result in significant additional expense and limit our ability to commercialize our products” in this Part I, Item 1A.
We expect that legislators, policymakers and healthcare insurance funds in Europe and other international markets will continue to propose and implement cost-containing measures to keep healthcare costs down. These measures could include limitations on the prices we will be able to charge for our products or the level of reimbursement available for these products from governmental authorities or third party payors as well as clawbacks and revenue caps. For example, in the U.K., the cap on National Health Service, or NHS, spending on branded medicines agreed between the U.K. government and industry for 2019 to 2023 has remained unaltered despite higher than expected growth in NHS use of branded medicines, resulting in significant increases to the industry level revenue clawback rate payable on sales of branded medicines to the NHS. In the EU, a trend in some EU member states is for medicinal products to be reimbursed based on competitor products and not in relation with the value or the cost of the product. A proposal for EU pharmaceutical reform also includes cooperation with the relevant national authorities of the EU member states on pricing and reimbursement. Further, an increasing number of European and other foreign countries use prices for medicinal products established in other countries as “reference prices” to help determine the price of the product in their own territory. Consequently, a downward trend in prices of medicinal products in some countries could contribute to similar downward trends elsewhere.
In addition to access, coverage and reimbursement, the commercial success of our products depends upon their market acceptance by physicians, patients, third party payors and the medical community.
If physicians do not prescribe our products, we cannot generate the revenues we anticipate from product sales. Market acceptance of each of our products by physicians, patients, third party payors and the medical community depends on:
the clinical indications for which a product is approved and any restrictions placed upon the product in connection with its approval, such as a REMS or equivalent obligation imposed in a European or other foreign country, patient registry requirements or labeling restrictions;
the prevalence of the disease or condition for which the product is approved and its diagnosis;
the efficacy of the product in regular use;
the severity of side effects and other risks in relation to the benefits of our products;
unanticipated serious adverse events;
acceptance by physicians and patients of each product as a safe and effective treatment;
availability of sufficient product inventory to meet demand;
physicians’ decisions relating to treatment practices based on availability of product;
perceived clinical superiority and/or advantages over alternative treatments;
overcoming negative publicity surrounding illicit use of
GHB or
CBD and marijuana products
and the view of patients, law enforcement agencies, physicians and regulators of our products as being the same or similar to illicit products;
relative convenience and ease of administration;
with respect to Xywav and Xyrem, physician and patient assessment of the burdens associated with obtaining or maintaining the certifications required under the Xywav and Xyrem REMS;
the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments, including generic products; and
the availability of financial or other assistance for patients who are uninsured or underinsured.
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Because of our dependence upon market acceptance of our products, any adverse publicity associated with harm to patients or other adverse events resulting from the use or misuse of any of our products or any similar products distributed by other companies, including generic versions of our products, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Delays or problems in the supply of our products for sale or for use in clinical trials, loss of our single source suppliers or failure to comply with manufacturing regulations could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
The manufacture of pharmaceutical products requires significant expertise and capital investment, including the development of process controls required to consistently produce the API and the finished product in sufficient quantities while meeting detailed product specifications on a repeated basis. We and our suppliers may encounter difficulties in production, including difficulties with the supply of manufacturing materials, production costs and yields, process controls, quality control and quality assurance, including testing of stability, impurities and impurity levels and other product specifications by validated test methods, and compliance with strictly enforced U.S., state and non-U.S. regulations. In addition, we and our suppliers are subject to FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, requirements, federal and state controlled substances obligations and equivalent rules and regulations prescribed by non-U.S. regulatory authorities. If we or any of our suppliers encounter manufacturing, quality or compliance difficulties with respect to any of our products, whether due to the ongoing military conflict in Ukraine and related sanctions imposed against Russia (including as a result of disruptions of global shipping, the transport of products, energy supply, cybersecurity incidents and banking systems as well as of our ability to control input costs) or otherwise, we may be unable to obtain or maintain regulatory approval or meet commercial demand for such products, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In addition, we could be subject to enforcement action by regulatory authorities for our failure to comply with cGMP with respect to the products we manufacture in our facilities as well as for our failure to adequately oversee compliance with cGMP by any of our third party suppliers operating under contract. Moreover, failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements subjects us and our suppliers to possible regulatory action, including restrictions on supply or shutdown, which may adversely affect our or a supplier’s ability to supply the ingredients or finished products we need.
We have a manufacturing and development facility in Athlone, Ireland where we manufacture Xywav and Xyrem, a manufacturing plant in Villa Guardia, Italy where we produce the defibrotide drug substance and a manufacturing and development facility in the U.K. at Kent Science Park, where we produce Epidiolex/Epidyolex and have capability to develop product candidates. We currently do not have our own commercial manufacturing or packaging capability for our other products, their APIs or product candidates outside of those developed at Kent Science Park. As a result, our ability to develop and supply products in a timely and competitive manner depends primarily on third party suppliers being able to meet our ongoing commercial and clinical trial needs for API, other raw materials, packaging materials and finished products.
In part due to the limited market size for our products and product candidates, we have a single source of supply for most of our marketed products, product candidates and their APIs. Single sourcing puts us at risk of interruption in supply in the event of manufacturing, quality or compliance difficulties. If one of our suppliers fails or refuses to supply us for any reason, it would take a significant amount of time and expense to implement and execute the necessary technology transfer to, and to qualify, a new supplier. FDA and similar international or national regulatory bodies must approve manufacturers of the active and inactive pharmaceutical ingredients and certain packaging materials used in our products. If there are delays in qualifying new suppliers or facilities or a new supplier is unable to meet FDA’s or similar international regulatory body’s requirements for approval, there could be a shortage of the affected products for the marketplace or for use in clinical studies, or both, which could negatively impact our anticipated revenues and could potentially cause us to breach contractual obligations with customers or to violate local laws requiring us to deliver the product to those in need.
We are responsible for the manufacture and supply of Epidiolex/Epidyolex and other cannabinoid product candidates for commercial use and for use in clinical trials. The manufacturing of Epidiolex/Epidyolex and our product candidates necessitates compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice, or GMP, and other regulatory requirements in jurisdictions internationally. Our ability to successfully manufacture Epidiolex/Epidyolex and other cannabinoid product candidates involves cultivation of botanical raw material from specific cannabinoid plants, extraction and purification processes, manufacture of finished products and labeling and packaging, which includes product information, tamper evidence and anti-counterfeit features, under tightly controlled processes and procedures. In addition, we must ensure chemical consistency among our batches, including clinical batches and, if approved, marketing batches. Demonstrating such consistency may require typical manufacturing controls as well as clinical data. We must also ensure that our batches conform to complex release specifications. We have a second site at which we can grow the specific cannabinoid plants that produce the CBD used in Epidiolex/Epidyolex, a second site at which we can extract CBD from botanical raw material and a second site at which we can crystallize the purified CBD from the liquid plant extract. A number of our product candidates (excluding Epidiolex/Epidyolex) consist of a complex mixture manufactured from plant materials, and because the release specifications may not be identical in all countries, certain batches may fail release testing and not be able to be commercialized. If we are unable to
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manufacture Epidiolex/Epidyolex or other product candidates in accordance with regulatory specifications, including GMP or if there are disruptions in our manufacturing process due to damage, loss or otherwise, or failure to pass regulatory inspections of our manufacturing facilities, we may not be able to meet current demand or supply sufficient product for use in clinical trials, and this may also harm our ability to commercialize Epidiolex/Epidyolex and our product candidates on a timely or cost-competitive basis, if at all. Our manufacturing program requires significant time and resources and may not be successful, may lead to delays, interruptions to supply or may prove to be more costly than anticipated.
Vyxeos is manufactured by Baxter Oncology GmbH, or Baxter, which is a sole source supplier from a single site location. There have been batch failures due to mechanical, component, raw materials and other issues in the production of Vyxeos, and batches have been produced that have otherwise not been in compliance with applicable specifications. We are continuing to work with Baxter and others to address manufacturing complexities related to Vyxeos. Moreover, the proprietary technology that supports the manufacture of Vyxeos is not easily transferable. Consequently, engaging an alternate manufacturer may be difficult, costly and time-consuming. If we fail to obtain a sufficient supply of Vyxeos in accordance with applicable specifications on a timely basis, our sales of Vyxeos, our future maintenance and potential growth of the market for this product, our ability to conduct ongoing and future clinical trials of Vyxeos, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Rylaze drug substance is manufactured by AGC Biologics A/S at its facility in Copenhagen, Denmark and the drug product is manufactured and packaged by Patheon at its facility in Greenville, North Carolina. Both sites have ample capacity to support forecast demand and we have secured supply for more than one year's forecast demand. To successfully manufacture Rylaze, the manufacturer must have an adequate master and working cell bank. If we fail to obtain a sufficient supply of Rylaze in accordance with applicable specifications on a timely basis, our sales of Rylaze, our future maintenance and potential growth of the market for this product, our competitive advantage over competing products that have supply constraints, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be materially adversely affected.
In addition, in order to conduct our ongoing and any future clinical trials of, complete marketing authorization submissions for, and potentially launch our other product candidates, we also need to have sufficient quantities of product manufactured.
Moreover, to obtain approval from FDA or a similar international or national regulatory body of any product candidate, we or our suppliers for that product must obtain approval by the applicable regulatory body to manufacture and supply product, in some cases based on qualification data provided to the applicable body as part of our regulatory submission. Any delay in generating, or failure to generate, data required in connection with submission of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls portions of any regulatory submission could negatively impact our ability to meet our anticipated submission dates, and therefore our anticipated timing for obtaining FDA or similar international or national regulatory body approval, or our ability to obtain regulatory approval at all. In addition, any failure of us or a supplier to obtain approval by the applicable regulatory body to manufacture and supply product or any delay in receiving, or failure to receive, adequate supplies of a product on a timely basis or in accordance with applicable specifications could negatively impact our ability to successfully launch and commercialize products and generate sales of products at the levels we expect.

Risks Related to Growth of Our Product Portfolio and Research and Development
Our future success depends on our ability to successfully develop and obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our late-stage product candidates and, if approved, to successfully launch and commercialize those product candidates.
The testing, manufacturing and marketing of our products require regulatory approvals, including approval from FDA and similar bodies in Europe and other countries. If FDA, the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, or the competent authorities of the EU member states or other European countries determine that our quality, safety or efficacy data do not warrant marketing approval for a product candidate, we could be required to conduct additional clinical trials as a condition to receiving approval, which could be costly and time-consuming and could delay or preclude the approval of our application. Our inability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval for our product candidates in the U.S. and internationally and to successfully commercialize new products that are approved would prevent us from receiving a return on our investments and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Even if we receive regulatory approval of a product, regulatory authorities may impose significant labeling restrictions or requirements, including limitations on the dosing of the product, requirements around the naming or strength of a product, restrictions on indicated uses for which we may market the product, the imposition of a boxed warning or other warnings and precautions, and/or the requirement for a REMS or equivalent obligation imposed in a European or other foreign country to ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks. FDA requires a REMS and a boxed warning for Xywav and Xyrem, and similar restrictions could be imposed on other products in the future. Our receipt of approval for narrower indications than sought, restrictions on marketing through a REMS or equivalent obligation imposed in a European or other foreign country, or
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significant labeling restrictions or requirements in an approved label such as a boxed warning, could have a negative impact on our ability to recoup our research and development costs and to successfully commercialize that product, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Regulatory authorities may also impose post-marketing obligations as part of their approval, which may lead to additional costs and burdens associated with commercialization of the product and may pose a risk to maintaining approval of the product. We are subject to certain post-marketing requirements and commitments in connection with the approval of certain of our products, including Epidiolex/Epidyolex, Defitelio, Vyxeos, Rylaze and Zepzelca. These post-marketing requirements and commitments include satisfactorily conducting multiple post-marketing clinical trials and safety studies. Failure to comply with these post-marketing requirements could result in withdrawal of our marketing approvals for the applicable product and/or other civil or criminal penalties. For example, FDA granted accelerated approval to Zepzelca for relapsed SCLC based on data from a Phase 2 trial, which approval is contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a post-marketing clinical trial. We and our licensor PharmaMar are committed to the further study of lurbinectedin, both as a single agent and in combination, and have reached agreement with FDA regarding a confirmatory clinical development program. Our inability to confirm its clinical benefit could result in the withdrawal of approval of Zepzelca, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In any event, if we are unable to comply with our post-marketing obligations imposed as part of the marketing approvals in the U.S., the EU, or other countries, our approval may be varied, suspended or revoked, product supply may be delayed and our sales of our products could be materially adversely affected.
Epidiolex has been administered only to a limited number of patients and in limited populations in clinical trials. While FDA and EC granted approval of Epidiolex/Epidyolex based on the data included in GW's NDA, supplemental NDA and marketing authorization application, we do not know whether the results will be consistent with those resulting from administration of the drug to a large number of patients. New data relating to Epidiolex/Epidyolex, including from adverse event reports and post-marketing studies in the U.S. and Europe, and from other ongoing clinical trials, may result in changes to the product label and/or imposition of a REMS and may adversely affect sales, or result in withdrawal of Epidiolex/Epidyolex from the market. FDA, EMA and regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions may also consider the new data in reviewing Epidiolex/Epidyolex marketing applications for indications other than our approved uses in other jurisdictions or impose additional post-approval requirements. If any of these actions were to occur, it could result in significant expense and delay or limit our ability to generate sales of Epidiolex/Epidyolex. If we are not successful in the clinical development of our product candidates, if we are unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates in a timely manner, or at all, or if sales of an approved product do not reach the levels we expect, our anticipated revenue from our product candidates would be negatively affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We may not be able to successfully identify and acquire or in-license additional products or product candidates to grow our business, and, even if we are able to do so, we may otherwise fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these transactions.
In addition to continued investment in our research and development pipeline, we intend to grow our business by acquiring or in-licensing, and developing, including with collaboration partners, additional products and product candidates that we believe are highly differentiated and have significant commercial potential. However, we may be unable to identify or consummate suitable acquisition or in-licensing opportunities, and this inability could impair our ability to grow our business. Other companies, many of which may have substantially greater financial, sales and marketing resources, compete with us for these opportunities. Even if appropriate opportunities are available, we may not be able to successfully identify them, or we may not have the financial resources necessary to pursue them.
Even if we are able to successfully identify and acquire, in-license or develop additional products or product candidates, we may not be able to successfully manage the risks associated with integrating any products or product candidates into our portfolio or the risks arising from anticipated and unanticipated problems in connection with an acquisition or in-licensing. Further, while we seek to mitigate risks and liabilities of potential acquisitions and in-licensing transactions through, among other things, due diligence, there may be risks and liabilities that such due diligence efforts fail to discover, that are not disclosed to us, or that we inadequately assess. Any failure in identifying and managing these risks, liabilities and uncertainties effectively, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, product and product candidate acquisitions, particularly when the acquisition takes the form of a merger or other business consolidation such as our acquisition of GW, have required, and any similar future transactions also will require, significant efforts and expenditures, including with respect to transition and integration activities. We may encounter unexpected difficulties, or incur substantial costs, in connection with potential acquisitions and similar transactions, which include:
the need to incur substantial debt and/or engage in dilutive issuances of equity securities to pay for acquisitions;
the need to comply with regulatory requirements, including in some cases clearance from the Federal Trade Commission;
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the potential disruption of our historical core business;
the strain on, and need to continue to expand, our existing operational, technical, financial and administrative infrastructure;
the difficulties in integrating acquired products and product candidates into our portfolio;
the difficulties in assimilating employees and corporate cultures;
the failure to retain key managers and other personnel;
the need to write down assets or recognize impairment charges;
the diversion of our management’s attention to integration of operations and corporate and administrative infrastructures; and
any unanticipated liabilities for activities of or related to the acquired business or its operations, products or product candidates.
As a result of these or other factors, products or product candidates we acquire, or obtain licenses to, may not produce the revenues, earnings or business synergies that we anticipated, may not result in regulatory approvals, and may not perform as expected. For example, in May 2021, we made a substantial investment in Epidiolex and certain other products and technologies acquired in our acquisition of GW. The total consideration paid by us for the entire issued share capital of GW was $7.2 billion. The success of our acquisition of GW will depend, in part, on our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from the acquisition, which benefits may not be realized at the expected levels within the expected timeframe, or at all, or may take longer to realize or cost more than expected, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In this regard, in the third quarter of 2022, we recorded a $133.6 million asset impairment charge as a result of the decision to discontinue the nabiximols program that we acquired as part of our acquisition of GW. In any event, failure to manage effectively our growth through acquisitions or in-licensing transactions could adversely affect our growth prospects, business, results of operations and financial condition.
Conducting clinical trials is costly and time-consuming, and the outcomes are uncertain. A failure to prove that our product candidates are safe and effective in clinical trials, or to generate data in clinical trials to support expansion of the therapeutic uses for our existing products, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
As a condition to regulatory approval, each product candidate must undergo extensive and expensive preclinical studies and clinical trials to demonstrate that the product candidate is safe and effective. The results at any stage of the development process may lack the desired safety, efficacy or pharmacokinetic characteristics. If FDA determines that the safety or efficacy data included in any marketing application we submit do not warrant marketing approval for the affected product or product candidate, we may be required to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials, which could be challenging to perform, costly and time-consuming. Even if we believe we have successfully completed testing, FDA or any equivalent non-U.S. regulatory agency may determine our data is not sufficiently compelling to warrant marketing approval for the indication(s) sought, if at all, and may require us to engage in additional clinical trials or provide further analysis which may be costly and time-consuming. Any adverse events or other data generated during the course of clinical trials of our product candidates and/or clinical trials related to additional indications for our commercialized products could result in action by FDA or an equivalent non-U.S. regulatory agency, which may restrict our ability to sell, or adversely affect sales of, currently marketed products, or such events or other data could otherwise have a material adverse effect on a related commercial product, including with respect to its safety profile. Any failure or delay in completing such clinical trials could materially and adversely affect the maintenance and growth of the markets for the related marketed products, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and overall growth prospects.
In addition to issues relating to the results generated in clinical trials, clinical trials can be delayed or halted for a variety of reasons, including:
difficulty identifying, recruiting or enrolling eligible patients, often based on the number of clinical trials, particularly with enrollment criteria targeting the same patient population, and in rare diseases with small patient populations;
difficulty identifying a clinical development pathway, including viable indications and appropriate clinical trial protocol design, particularly where there is no applicable regulatory precedent;
delays or failures in obtaining regulatory authorization to commence a trial because of safety concerns of regulators relating to our product candidates or similar product candidates of our competitors or failure to follow regulatory guidelines;
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delays or failures in obtaining clinical materials and manufacturing sufficient quantities of the product candidate for use in trials;
delays or failures in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective study sites;
delays or failures in obtaining approval of our clinical trial protocol from an institutional review board, known as an ethics committee in Europe, to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective study site;
failure of our clinical trials and clinical investigators, including contract research organizations or other third parties assisting us with clinical trials, to satisfactorily perform their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines and comply with FDA and other regulatory agencies’ requirements, including good clinical practices;
unforeseen safety issues;
inability to monitor patients adequately during or after treatment;
difficulty monitoring multiple study sites; or
insufficient funds to complete the trials.
In some jurisdictions such as the EU, initiating phase 3 clinical trials and clinical trials in the pediatric population is subject to a requirement to obtain approval or a waiver from the competent authorities of the EU member states and/or the EMA. If we do not obtain such approval our ability to conduct clinical trials and obtain marketing authorizations or approvals may be severely impaired and our business may be adversely impacted.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
It is difficult and costly to protect our proprietary rights, and we may not be able to ensure their protection.
Our commercial success depends in part on obtaining, maintaining and defending intellectual property protection for our products and product candidates, including protection of their use and methods of manufacturing and distribution. Our ability to protect our products and product candidates from unauthorized making, using, selling, offering to sell or importation by third parties depends on the extent to which we have rights under valid and enforceable patents or have adequately protected trade secrets that cover these activities.
The degree of protection to be afforded by our proprietary rights is difficult to predict because legal means afford only limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep our competitive advantage. For example:
our patent applications, or those of our licensors or partners, may not result in issued patents;
others may independently develop similar or therapeutically equivalent products without infringing our patents, or those of our licensors, such as products that are not covered by the claims of our patents, or for which fall outside the exclusive rights granted under our license agreements;
our issued patents, or those of our licensors or partners, may be held invalid or unenforceable as a result of legal challenges by third parties or may be vulnerable to legal challenges as a result of changes in applicable law;
our patents covering certain aspects of our products or the distribution thereof could be delisted from FDA's publication “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations,” or Orange Book, as a result of challenges by third parties before FDA or the courts;
competitors may manufacture products in countries where we have not applied for patent protection or that have a different scope of patent protection or that do not respect our patents; or
others may be issued patents that prevent the sale of our products or require licensing and the payment of significant fees or royalties.
Patent enforcement generally must be sought on a country-by-country basis, and issues of patent validity and infringement may be judged differently in different countries. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, may lack maturity or consistency when it comes to the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property rights, particularly those relating to pharmaceuticals, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business.
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Changes in either the patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the U.S. and other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property portfolio. Any patent may be challenged, and potentially invalidated or held unenforceable, including through patent litigation or through administrative procedures that permit challenges to patent validity. Patents can also be circumvented, potentially including by an ANDA or Section 505(b)(2) application that avoids infringement of our intellectual property.
In June 2021, we received notice from Lupin that it has filed with FDA an ANDA for a generic version of Xywav. The notice from Lupin included a “paragraph IV certification” with respect to ten of our patents listed in FDA’s Orange Book for Xywav on the date of our receipt of the notice. A paragraph IV certification is a certification by a generic applicant that patents covering the branded product are invalid, unenforceable, and/or will not be infringed by the manufacture, use or sale of the generic product. In April 2022, we received notice from Lupin that it had filed a paragraph IV certification regarding a newly-issued patent listed in the Orange Book for Xywav. Additionally, in November and December 2022, ten companies sent us notices that they had filed ANDAs seeking approval to market a generic version of Epidiolex, which notices each included a “paragraph IV certification” with respect to certain of our patents listed in FDA’s Orange Book for Epidiolex on the date of the receipt of the applicable notice. For additional information on litigation involving these matters, see Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
We have settled patent litigation with nine companies seeking to introduce generic versions of Xyrem in the U.S. by granting those companies licenses to launch their generic products (and in certain cases, an authorized generic version of Xyrem) in advance of the expiration of the last of our patents. Notwithstanding our Xyrem patents and settlement agreements, additional third parties may also attempt to introduce generic versions of Xyrem, Xywav or other sodium oxybate products for treatment of cataplexy and/or EDS in narcolepsy that design around our patents or assert that our patents are invalid or otherwise unenforceable. Such third parties could launch a generic or 505(b)(2) product referencing Xyrem before the dates provided in our patents or settlement agreements. For example, we have several method of use patents listed in the Orange Book, that expire in 2033 that cover treatment methods included in the Xyrem label related to a drug-drug interaction, or DDI, with divalproex sodium. Although FDA has stated, in granting a Citizen Petition we submitted in 2016, that it would not approve any sodium oxybate ANDA referencing Xyrem that does not include the portions of the currently approved Xyrem label related to the DDI patents, we cannot predict whether a future ANDA filer, or a company that files a Section 505(b)(2) application for a drug referencing Xyrem, may pursue regulatory strategies to avoid infringing our DDI patents notwithstanding FDA’s response to the Citizen Petition, or whether any such strategy would be successful. Likewise, we cannot predict whether we will be able to maintain the validity of these patents or will otherwise obtain a judicial determination that a generic or other sodium oxybate product, its package insert or the generic sodium oxybate REMS or another separate REMS will infringe any of our patents or, if we prevail in proving infringement, whether a court will grant an injunction that prevents a future ANDA filer or other company introducing a different sodium oxybate product from marketing its product, or instead require that party to pay damages in the form of lost profits or a reasonable royalty.
On May 13, 2021, we filed a patent infringement suit against Avadel and several of its corporate affiliates in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware. The suit alleges that Avadel’s product candidate FT218 will infringe five of our patents related to controlled release formulations of oxybate and the safe and effective distribution of oxybate. The suit seeks an injunction to prevent Avadel from launching a product that would infringe these patents, and an award of monetary damages if Avadel does launch an infringing product. Avadel filed an answer to the complaint and counterclaims asserting that the patents are invalid or not enforceable, and that its product, if approved, will not infringe our patents. For additional information on litigation involving this matter, see “Avadel Patent Litigation” in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
Since Xyrem’s regulatory exclusivity has expired in the EU, we are aware that generic or hybrid generic applications have been approved by various EU regulatory authorities, and additional generic or hybrid generic applications may be submitted and approved.
We also currently rely on trade secret protection for several of our products, including Defitelio, and product candidates. Trade secret protection does not protect information or inventions if another party develops that information or invention independently, and establishing that a competitor developed a product through trade secret misappropriation rather than through legitimate means may be difficult to prove. We seek to protect our trade secrets and other unpatented proprietary information in part through confidentiality and invention agreements with our employees, consultants, advisors and partners. Nevertheless, our employees, consultants, advisors and partners may unintentionally or willfully disclose our proprietary information to competitors, and we may not have adequate remedies for such disclosures. Moreover, if a dispute arises with our employees, consultants, advisors or partners over the ownership of rights to inventions, including jointly developed intellectual property, we could lose patent protection or the confidentiality of our proprietary information, and possibly also lose the ability to pursue the development of certain new products or product candidates.
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We have incurred and may in the future incur substantial costs as a result of litigation or other proceedings relating to patents, other intellectual property rights and related matters, and we may be unable to protect our rights to, or commercialize, our products.
Our ability, and that of our partners, to successfully commercialize any approved products will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain patents, enforce those patents and operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. If we choose to go to court to stop a third party from infringing our patents, our licensed patents or our partners’ patents, that third party has the right to ask the court or an administrative agency to rule that these patents are invalid and/or should not be enforced. These lawsuits and administrative proceedings are expensive and consume time and other resources, and we may not be successful in these proceedings or in stopping infringement. In addition, the inter partes review process, or IPR, or a post grant review process under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act permits any person, whether they are accused of infringing the patent at issue or not, to challenge the validity of certain patents through a proceeding before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board, or PTAB, of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
There is a risk that a court could decide that our patents or certain claims in our patents are not valid or infringed, and that we do not have the right to stop a third party from using the inventions covered by those claims. In addition, the PTAB may invalidate a patent, as happened with six of our patents covering the Xywav and Xyrem REMS, which were invalidated through the IPR process. In addition, even if we prevail in establishing that another product infringes a valid claim of one of our patents, a court may determine that we can be compensated for the infringement in damages, and refuse to issue an injunction. As a result, we may not be entitled to stop another party from infringing our patents for their full term.
Litigation involving patent matters is frequently settled between the parties, rather than continuing to a court ruling, and we have settled patent litigation with all nine Xyrem ANDA filers. The FTC has publicly stated that, in its view, certain types of agreements between branded and generic pharmaceutical companies related to the settlement of patent litigation or the manufacture, marketing and sale of generic versions of branded drugs violate the antitrust laws and has commenced investigations and brought actions against some companies that have entered into such agreements. In particular, the FTC has expressed its intention to take aggressive action to challenge settlements that include an alleged transfer of value from the brand company to the generic company (so-called “pay for delay” patent litigation settlements). The U.S. Congress and state legislatures have also identified pharmaceutical patent litigation settlements as potential impediments to generic competition and have introduced, and in states like California passed, legislation to regulate them. Third party payors have also challenged such settlements on the grounds that they increase drug prices. Because there is currently no precise legal standard with respect to the lawfulness of such settlements, many pharmaceutical companies, including us, have faced extensive litigation over whether patent litigation settlements they have entered into are reasonable and lawful. From June 2020 to May 2022, a number of lawsuits were filed on behalf of purported direct and indirect Xyrem purchasers, alleging that the patent litigation settlement agreements we entered with Hikma and other ANDA filers violate state and federal antitrust and consumer protection laws. For additional information on these lawsuits, see Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies-Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. It is possible that additional lawsuits will be filed against us making similar or related allegations. We cannot predict the outcome of these or potential additional lawsuits; however, if the plaintiffs in the class action complaints were to be successful in their claims, they may be entitled to injunctive relief or we may be required to pay significant monetary damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Parties to such settlement agreements in the U.S. are required by law to file the agreements with the FTC and the U.S. Department of Justice, or DOJ, for review. Accordingly, we have submitted our patent litigation settlement agreements to the FTC and the DOJ for review. We may receive formal or informal requests from the FTC regarding our ANDA litigation settlements, and there is a risk that the FTC may commence a formal investigation or action against us, which could divert the attention of management and cause us to incur significant costs, regardless of the outcome. Any claim or finding that we or our business partners have failed to comply with applicable laws and regulations could be costly to us and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
A third party may claim that we or our manufacturing or commercialization partners are using inventions covered by the third party’s patent rights, or that we or such partners are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating other intellectual property rights, and may go to court to stop us from engaging in our normal operations and activities, including making or selling our products. Such lawsuits are costly and could affect our results of operations and divert the attention of management and development personnel. There is a risk that a court could decide that we or our partners are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating third party patent or other intellectual property rights, which could be very costly to us and have a material adverse effect on our business. If we are sued for patent infringement, we would need to demonstrate that our products or methods do not infringe the patent claims of the relevant patent and/or that the patent claims are invalid or unenforceable, which we may not be able to do.
If we were found to infringe upon a patent or other intellectual property right, or if we failed to obtain or renew a license under a patent or other intellectual property right from a third party, or if a third party that we were licensing technologies from
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was found to infringe upon a patent or other intellectual property rights of another third party, we may be required to pay damages, including damages of up to three times the damages found or assessed, if the infringement is found to be willful, suspend the manufacture of certain products or reengineer or rebrand our products, if feasible, or we may be unable to enter certain new product markets. Litigation, whether filed by us or against us, can be expensive and time consuming to defend and divert management’s attention and resources. Our competitive position could suffer as a result. In addition, if we have declined or failed to enter into a valid assignment agreement for any reason, we may not own the invention or our intellectual property, and our products may not be adequately protected.
With respect to our products and product candidates targeting rare indications, relevant regulatory exclusivities such as orphan drug exclusivity or pediatric exclusivity may not be granted or, if granted, may be limited.
The first NDA applicant with an orphan drug designation for a particular active moiety to treat a specific disease or condition that receives FDA approval is usually entitled to a seven-year exclusive marketing period in the U.S. for that drug, for that indication. We rely in part on this Orphan Drug Exclusivity and other regulatory exclusivities to protect Xywav, Epidiolex, Zepzelca, Defitelio, Vyxeos and, potentially, our other products and product candidates from competitors, and we expect to continue relying in part on these regulatory exclusivities in the future. The duration of our regulatory exclusivity period could be impacted by a number of factors, including FDA’s later determination that our request for orphan designation was materially defective, that the manufacturer is unable to supply sufficient quantities of the drug, that the extension of the exclusivity period established by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act does not apply, or the possibility that we are unable to successfully obtain pediatric exclusivity. There is no assurance that we will successfully obtain orphan drug designation for other products or product candidates or other rare diseases or that a product candidate for which we receive orphan drug designation will be approved, or that we will be awarded orphan drug exclusivity upon approval as, for example, FDA may reconsider whether the eligibility criteria for such exclusivity have been met and/or maintained. Moreover, a drug product with an active moiety that is different from that in our drug candidate or, under limited circumstances, the same drug product, may be approved by FDA for the same indication during the period of marketing exclusivity. The limited circumstances include a showing that the second drug is clinically superior to the drug with marketing exclusivity through a demonstration of superior safety or efficacy or that it makes a major contribution to patient care. In addition, if a competitor obtains approval and marketing exclusivity for a drug product with an active moiety that is the same as that in a product candidate we are pursuing for the same indication before us, approval of our product candidate would be blocked during the period of marketing exclusivity unless we could demonstrate that our product candidate is clinically superior to the approved product. In addition, if a competitor obtains approval and marketing exclusivity for a drug product with an active moiety that is the same as that in a product candidate we are pursuing for a different orphan indication, this may negatively impact the market opportunity for our product candidate. There have been legal challenges to aspects of FDA’s regulations and policies concerning the exclusivity provisions of the Orphan Drug Act, including whether two drugs are the same drug product, and future challenges could lead to changes that affect the protections potentially afforded our products in ways that are difficult to predict. In the future, there is the potential for legislative changes or additional legal challenges to FDA’s orphan drug regulations and policies, and it is uncertain how such challenges might affect our business.
In the European Union, if a marketing authorization is granted for a medicinal product that is designated an orphan drug, that product is entitled to ten years of marketing exclusivity. We rely in part on this orphan drug exclusivity and other regulatory exclusivities to protect Epidyolex, Vyxeos and Defitelio. During the period of marketing exclusivity, subject to limited exceptions, no similar medicinal product may be granted a marketing authorization for the orphan indication. There is no assurance that we will successfully obtain orphan drug designation for future rare indications or orphan exclusivity upon approval of any of our product candidates that have already obtained designation. Even if we obtain orphan exclusivity for any product candidate, the exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if at the end of the fifth year it is established that the orphan designation criteria are no longer met or if it is demonstrated that the orphan drug is sufficiently profitable that market exclusivity is no longer justified. Further, a similar medicinal product may be granted a marketing authorization for the same indication notwithstanding our marketing exclusivity if we are unable to supply sufficient quantities of our product, or if the second product is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior to our orphan drug. In addition, if a competitor obtains marketing authorization and orphan exclusivity for a product that is similar to a product candidate we are pursuing for the same indication, approval of our product candidate would be blocked during the period of orphan marketing exclusivity unless we could demonstrate that our product candidate is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior to the approved product.

Other Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We have substantially expanded our international footprint and operations, and we may expand further in the future, which subjects us to a variety of risks and complexities which, if not effectively managed, could negatively affect our business.
We are headquartered in Dublin, Ireland and have offices in multiple locations, including the U.S., the U.K., Italy and Canada. We may further expand our international operations into other countries in the future, either organically or by
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acquisition. Conducting our business in multiple countries subjects us to a variety of risks and complexities that may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects, including:
the diverse regulatory, financial and legal requirements in the countries where we are located or do business, and any changes to those requirements;
the impact of Brexit on trade relations between the EU and the U.K.;
challenges inherent in efficiently managing employees and commercial partners in diverse geographies, including the need to adapt systems, policies, benefits and compliance programs to differing labor and employment law and other regulations, as well as maintaining positive interactions with our unionized employees;
costs of, and liabilities for, our international operations, products or product candidates;
additional exposure to foreign currency exchange risk from non-U.S. operations;
political and economic instability, such as the instability caused by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine; and
public health risks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and potential related effects on supply chain, travel and employee health and availability.
In addition, there can be no guarantee that we will effectively manage the increasing, global complexity of our business without experiencing operating inefficiencies or control deficiencies. Our failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Significant disruptions of information technology systems or data security breaches could adversely affect our business.
In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, store, process and transmit large amounts of confidential information, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal data. We have also outsourced some of our operations (including parts of our information technology infrastructure) to a number of third party vendors who may have, or could gain, access to our confidential information. In addition, many of those third parties, in turn, subcontract or outsource some of their responsibilities to third parties.
Our information technology systems, and those of our vendors, are large and complex and store large amounts of confidential information. The size and complexity of these systems make them potentially vulnerable to service interruptions or to security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, third party vendors and/or business partners, or from cyber-attacks by malicious third parties. Attacks of this nature are increasing in frequency, persistence, sophistication and intensity, and are being conducted by sophisticated and organized groups and individuals with a wide range of motives (including, but not limited to, industrial espionage) and expertise, including organized criminal groups, “hacktivists,” nation states and others. In addition to the extraction of important information, such attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our information. Although the aggregate impact on our operations and financial condition has not been material to date, we and our vendors have been the target of events of this nature and expect them to continue.
Significant disruptions of our, our third party vendors’ and/or business partners’ information technology systems or security breaches, including in our remote work environment, could adversely affect our business operations and/or result in the loss, misappropriation, and/or unauthorized access, use or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, confidential information (including trade secrets or other intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal data), and could result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us. Any such event that leads to unauthorized access, use or disclosure of personal data, including personal data regarding our patients or employees, could harm our reputation, compel us to comply with federal and/or state breach notification laws and foreign law equivalents, subject us to mandatory corrective action, require us to verify the correctness of database contents and otherwise subject us to liability under laws and regulations that protect the privacy and security of personal data. This could disrupt our business, result in increased costs or loss of revenue, and/or result in significant legal and financial exposure. In addition, security breaches and other inappropriate access can be difficult to detect, and any delay in identifying them may further harm us. While we have implemented security measures to protect our information technology systems and infrastructure, there can be no assurance that such measures will prevent service interruptions or security breaches that could adversely affect our business. In addition, failure to maintain effective internal accounting controls related to security breaches and cybersecurity in general could impact our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements and subject us to regulatory scrutiny.
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We are subject to significant ongoing regulatory obligations and oversight, which may subject us to civil or criminal proceedings, investigations, or penalties and may result in significant additional expense and limit our ability to commercialize our products.
FDA and Equivalent Non-U.S. Regulatory Authorities
Our activities are subject to extensive regulation encompassing the entire life cycle of our products, from research and development activities to marketing approval (including specific post-marketing obligations), manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event and safety reporting, storage, advertising, promotion, sale, pricing and reimbursement, recordkeeping, distribution, importing and exporting. The failure by us or any of our third party partners, including our corporate development and collaboration partners, clinical trial sites, suppliers, distributors and our central pharmacy for Xywav and Xyrem, to comply with applicable requirements could subject us to administrative or judicial sanctions or other negative consequences, such as delays in approval or refusal to approve a product candidate, restrictions on our products, our suppliers, our other partners or us, the withdrawal, suspension or variation of product approval or manufacturing authorizations, untitled letters, warning letters, fines and other monetary penalties, unanticipated expenditures, product recall, withdrawal or seizure, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, interruption of manufacturing or clinical trials, operating restrictions, injunctions, suspension of licenses, civil penalties and/or criminal prosecution, any of which could result in a significant drop in our revenues from the affected products and harm to our reputation and could have a significant impact on our sales, business and financial condition.
We monitor adverse events resulting from the use of our products, as do the regulatory authorities, and we file periodic reports with the authorities concerning adverse events. The authorities review these events and reports, and if they determine that any events and/or reports indicate a trend or signal, they can require a change in a product label, restrict sales and marketing and/or require conduct or other actions, potentially including variation, withdrawal or suspension of the marketing authorization, any of which could result in reduced market acceptance and demand for our products, could harm our reputation and our ability to market our products in the future, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. FDA, the competent authorities of the EU member states on behalf of the EMA, and the competent authorities of other European countries, also periodically inspect our records related to safety reporting. The EMA’s Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee may propose to the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use that the marketing authorization holder be required to take specific steps or advise that the existing marketing authorization be varied, suspended or revoked. Failure to adequately and promptly correct the observation(s) can result in further regulatory enforcement action, which could include the variation, suspension or withdrawal of marketing authorization or imposition of financial penalties or other enforcement measures.
Defibrotide, Vyxeos, Rylaze and Epidyolex are available on a named patient basis or through a compassionate use process in many countries where they are not commercially available. If any such country’s regulatory authorities determine that we are promoting such products without proper authorization, we could be found to be in violation of pharmaceutical advertising laws or the regulations permitting sales under named patient programs. In that case, we may be subject to financial or other penalties. Any failure to maintain revenues from sales of products on a named patient basis and/or to generate revenues from commercial sales of these products exceeding historical sales on a named patient basis could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
FDA, the competent authorities of the EU member states and other European countries, and other governmental authorities require advertising and promotional materials to be truthful and not misleading, and products to be marketed only for their approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. Regulatory authorities actively investigate allegations of off-label promotion in order to enforce regulations prohibiting these types of activities. A determination that we have promoted an approved product for off-label uses could subject us to significant liability, including civil and administrative financial penalties and other remedies as well as criminal financial penalties, other sanctions and imprisonment. Even if we are not determined to have engaged in off-label promotion, an allegation that we have engaged in such activities could have a significant impact on our sales, business and financial condition. The U.S. government has also required companies to enter into complex corporate integrity agreements and/or non-prosecution agreements that impose significant reporting and other burdens on the affected companies. Failure to maintain a comprehensive and effective compliance program, and to integrate the operations of acquired businesses into a combined comprehensive and effective compliance program on a timely basis, could subject us to a range of regulatory actions and/or civil or criminal penalties that could affect our ability to commercialize our products and could harm or prevent sales of the affected products, or could substantially increase the costs and expenses of commercializing and marketing our products.
Other Regulatory Authorities
We are also subject to regulation by other regional, national, state and local agencies, including the DEA, the DOJ, the FTC, the United States Department of Commerce, the Office of Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or OIG, and other regulatory bodies, as well as similar governmental authorities in those non-U.S. countries in which we commercialize our products.
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We are subject to numerous fraud and abuse laws and regulations globally and our sales, marketing, patient support and medical activities may be subject to scrutiny under these laws and regulations. These laws are described in “Business—Government Regulation” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K for the year ended December 31, 2022. While we maintain a comprehensive compliance program to try to ensure that our practices and the activities of our third-party contractors and employees fall within the scope of available statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors whenever possible, and otherwise comply with applicable laws, regulations or guidance, regulators and enforcement agencies may disagree with our assessment or find fault with the conduct of our employees or contractors. In addition, existing regulations are subject to regulatory revision or changes in interpretation by the DOJ or OIG. For example, in November 2020, the OIG issued a Special Fraud Alert to highlight certain inherent fraud and abuse risks associated with speaker fees, honorariums and expenses paid by pharmaceutical and medical device companies to healthcare professionals participating in company-sponsored events. The Special Fraud Alert sent a clear signal that speaker programs will be subject to potentially heightened enforcement scrutiny.
Many companies have faced government investigations or lawsuits by whistleblowers who bring a qui tam action under the False Claims Act on behalf of themselves and the government for a variety of alleged improper marketing activities, including providing free product to customers expecting that the customers would bill federal programs for the product, providing consulting fees, grants, free travel and other benefits to physicians to induce them to prescribe the company’s products, and inflating prices reported to private price publication services, which are used to set drug reimbursement rates under government healthcare programs. In addition, the government and private whistleblowers have pursued False Claims Act cases against pharmaceutical companies for causing false claims to be submitted as a result of the marketing of their products for unapproved uses or violations of the federal anti-kickback statute. If we become the subject of a government False Claims Act or other investigation or whistleblower suit, we could incur substantial legal costs (including settlement costs) and business disruption responding to such investigation or suit, regardless of the outcome.
On July 11, 2022, we received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Massachusetts requesting documents related to Xyrem and U.S. Patent No. 8,772,306 (“Method of Administration of Gamma Hydroxybutyrate with Monocarboxylate Transporters”), product labeling changes for Xyrem, communications with FDA and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, pricing of Xyrem, and other related documents. We are cooperating with this investigation. We are unable to predict how long this investigation will continue or its outcome, but it is possible that we will incur significant costs in connection with the investigation, regardless of the outcome. We may also become subject to similar investigations by other state or federal governmental agencies. The investigation by the U.S. Attorney’s Office and any additional investigations or litigation related to the subject matter of this investigation may result in damages, fines, penalties or administrative sanctions against us, negative publicity or other negative actions that could harm our reputation, reduce demand for Xyrem and/or reduce coverage of Xyrem, including by federal health care programs and state health care programs. If any or all of these events occur, our business and stock price could be materially and adversely affected.
Public reporting under the Physician Payment Sunshine Act, or Sunshine provisions, and other similar state laws, the requirements of which are discussed in “Business—Government Regulation” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K for the year ended December 31, 2022, has resulted in increased scrutiny of the financial relationships between industry, teaching hospitals, physicians and other health care providers. Such scrutiny may negatively impact our ability to engage with physicians and other health care providers on matters of importance to us. In addition, government agencies and private entities may inquire about our marketing practices or pursue other enforcement activities based on the disclosures in those public reports. If the data reflected in our reports are found to be in violation of any of the Sunshine provisions or any other U.S. federal, state or local laws or regulations that may apply, or if we otherwise fail to comply with the Sunshine provisions or similar requirements of state or local regulators, we may be subject to significant civil, and administrative penalties, damages or fines.
We have various programs to help patients access our products, including patient assistance programs, which include co-pay coupons for certain of our products, assistance to help patients determine their insurance coverage for our products, and a free product program. Co-pay coupon programs for commercially insured patients, including our program for Xyrem, have received negative publicity related to allegations regarding their use to promote branded pharmaceutical products over other less costly alternatives, and some states have imposed restrictions on manufacturer co-pay programs when therapeutic equivalents are available. In September 2014, the OIG issued a Special Advisory Bulletin warning manufacturers that they may be subject to sanctions under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and other laws if they do not take appropriate steps to exclude Medicare Part D beneficiaries from using co-pay coupons. It is possible that changes in insurer policies regarding co-pay coupons and/or the introduction and enactment of new legislation or regulatory action could restrict or otherwise negatively affect these patient support programs, which could result in fewer patients using affected products, including Xyrem, and therefore could have a material adverse effect on our sales, business and financial condition.
We have established programs to consider grant applications submitted by independent charitable organizations, including organizations that provide co-pay support to patients who suffer from the diseases treated by our drugs. The OIG has issued guidance for how pharmaceutical manufacturers can lawfully make donations to charitable organizations who provide
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co-pay assistance to Medicare patients, provided that such organizations, among other things, are bona fide charities, are entirely independent of and not controlled by the manufacturer, provide aid to applicants on a first-come basis according to consistent financial criteria, and do not link aid to use of a donor’s product. In April 2019, we finalized our civil settlement agreement with the DOJ and OIG and entered into a corporate integrity agreement requiring us to maintain our ongoing corporate compliance program and obligating us to implement or continue, as applicable, a set of defined corporate integrity activities for a period of five years from the effective date of the corporate integrity agreement. Although we have structured our programs to follow available guidance and the requirements of our corporate integrity agreement, if we or our vendors or donation recipients are deemed to fail to comply with relevant laws, regulations or evolving government guidance in the operation of these programs, such facts could be used as the basis for an enforcement action against us by the federal government or other enforcement agencies or private litigants, or we could become liable for payment of certain stipulated penalties or could be excluded from participation in federal health care programs, which would have a material adverse effect on our sales, business and financial condition.
Our business activities outside of the U.S. are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and similar anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate, including the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010, or the U.K. Bribery Act. In certain countries, the health care providers who prescribe pharmaceuticals are employed by their government and the purchasers of pharmaceuticals are government entities; therefore, our dealings with these prescribers and purchasers may be subject to regulation under the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and equivalent national laws in other countries. As an example, recently the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the DOJ have increased their FCPA enforcement activities with respect to pharmaceutical companies. Violation of these laws by us or our suppliers and other third party agents for which we may be liable may result in civil or criminal sanctions, which could include monetary fines, criminal penalties, and disgorgement of past profits, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and financial condition.
Outside the U.S., interactions between pharmaceutical companies and physicians are also governed by strict laws, such as national anti-bribery laws of European countries, national sunshine rules, regulations, industry self-regulation codes of conduct and physicians’ codes of professional conduct. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in reputational risk, public reprimands, administrative penalties, fines or imprisonment.
We are also subject to federal, state, national and international laws and regulations governing the privacy and security of health related and other personal data we collect and maintain (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, the California Consumer Privacy Act and the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation). These laws and regulations are evolving and subject to interpretation, and may impose limitations on our activities or otherwise adversely affect our business.
If we or our third party partners fail to comply or are alleged to have failed to comply with these or other applicable data protection and privacy laws and regulations, or if we were to experience a data breach involving personal data, we could be subject to government enforcement actions or private lawsuits. Any associated claims, inquiries, or investigations or other government actions could lead to unfavorable outcomes that have a material impact on our business including through significant penalties or fines, monetary judgments or settlements including criminal and civil liability for us and our officers and directors, increased compliance costs, delays or impediments in the development of new products, negative publicity, increased operating costs, diversion of management time and attention, or other remedies that harm our business, including orders that we modify or cease existing business practices.
If we fail to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program or other governmental pricing programs, we could be subject to additional reimbursement requirements, penalties, sanctions and fines, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We participate in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, the 340B program, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Federal Supply Schedule, or FSS, pricing program, and the Tricare Retail Pharmacy program, and have obligations to report the average sales price for certain of our drugs to the Medicare program. All of these programs are described in more detail under the heading “Business—Pharmaceutical Pricing, Reimbursement by Government and Private Payors and Patient Access” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. For calendar quarters beginning January 1, 2022, manufacturers are required to report the average sales price for drugs under the Medicare program regardless of whether they are enrolled in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. In addition, starting in 2023, manufacturers must pay refunds to Medicare for single source drugs or biologicals, or biosimilar biological products, reimbursed under Medicare Part B and packaged in single-dose containers or single-use packages for units of discarded drug reimbursed by Medicare Part B in excess of 10 percent of total allowed charges under Medicare Part B for that drug. Statutory or regulatory changes or guidance from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, could affect the average sales price calculations for our products and the resulting Medicare payment rate and could negatively impact our results of operations. Further, starting in January 2023, the IRA establishes a Medicare Part B inflation rebate scheme, under which, generally speaking, manufacturers will owe rebates if the
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average sales price of a Part B drug increases faster than the pace of inflation. Failure to timely pay a Part B inflation rebate is subject to a civil monetary penalty.
Pricing and rebate calculations vary across products and programs, are complex, and are often subject to interpretation by us, governmental or regulatory agencies and the courts, which can change and evolve over time. In the case of our Medicaid pricing data, if we become aware that our reporting for a prior quarter was incorrect, or has changed as a result of recalculation of the pricing data, we are generally obligated to resubmit the corrected data for up to three years after those data originally were due. Such restatements and recalculations increase our costs for complying with the laws and regulations governing the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and could result in an overage or underage in our rebate liability for past quarters. Price recalculations also may affect the ceiling price at which we are required to offer our products under the 340B program and give rise to an obligation to refund entities participating in the 340B program for overcharges during past quarters impacted by a price recalculation.
Civil monetary penalties can be applied if we are found to have knowingly submitted any false price or product information to the government, if we are found to have made a misrepresentation in the reporting of our average sales price, if we fail to submit the required price data on a timely basis, or if we are found to have charged 340B covered entities more than the statutorily mandated ceiling price. CMS could also decide to terminate our Medicaid drug rebate agreement, in which case federal payments may not be available under Medicaid or Medicare Part B for our covered outpatient drugs. We cannot assure you that our submissions will not be found by CMS to be incomplete or incorrect. Moreover, failure to pay refunds for discarded drug under the refund program could subject us to civil monetary penalties of 125 percent of the refund amount.
Our failure to comply with our reporting and payment obligations under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and other governmental programs could negatively impact our financial results. In December 2020, CMS issued a final regulation that modified prior Medicaid Drug Rebate Program regulations to permit reporting multiple best price figures with regard to value‑based purchasing arrangements; and to provide definitions for “line extension,” “new formulation,” and related terms, with the practical effect of expanding the scope of drugs considered to be line extensions that are subject to an alternative rebate formula. While the regulatory provisions that purported to affect the applicability of the best price and average manufacturer price exclusions of manufacturer-sponsored patient benefit programs, in the context of pharmacy benefit manager “accumulator” programs were invalidated by a court, such programs may continue to negatively affect us in other ways. Regulatory and legislative changes, and judicial rulings relating to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and related policies (including coverage expansion), have increased and will continue to increase our costs and the complexity of compliance, have been and will continue to be time-consuming to implement, and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, particularly if CMS or another agency challenges the approach we take in our implementation. Rebates are currently capped at 100 percent of average manufacturer price, but, effective January 1, 2024, this cap will be lifted.
The Health Resources and Services Administration, or HRSA, issued a final regulation regarding the calculation of the 340B ceiling price and the imposition of civil monetary penalties on manufacturers that knowingly and intentionally overcharge covered entities, which became effective in January 2019. Implementation of this regulation could affect our obligations and potential liability under the 340B program in ways we cannot anticipate. We are also required to report the 340B ceiling prices for our covered outpatient drugs to HRSA, which then publishes them to 340B covered entities. Any charge by HRSA that we have violated this regulation or other requirements of the program could negatively impact our financial results. Moreover, HRSA newly established an administrative dispute resolution, or ADR, process under a final regulation effective January 2021, for claims by covered entities that a manufacturer engaged in overcharging, including claims that a manufacturer limited the ability of a covered entity to purchase the manufacturer’s drugs at the 340B ceiling price, and by manufacturers that a covered entity violated the prohibitions against diversion or duplicate discounts. Such claims are to be resolved through an ADR panel of government officials rendering a decision that could be appealed only in federal court. Under the ADR final rule which became effective in January 2021, an ADR proceeding could potentially subject us to discovery by covered entities and other onerous procedural requirements and could result in additional liability. This ADR regulation has been challenged in separate litigation instituted by PhRMA and by pharmaceutical manufacturers in multiple federal courts. In November 2022, HRSA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking that proposes changes to the ADR process, which could negatively affect us. In addition, HRSA could decide to terminate a manufacturer’s agreement to participate in the 340B program for a violation of that agreement or other good cause shown, in which case the manufacturer’s covered outpatient drugs may no longer be eligible for federal payment under the Medicaid or Medicare Part B program.
Further, legislation may be introduced that, if passed, would, among other things, modify the requirements of the 340B program.
Medicare Part D generally provides coverage to enrolled Medicare patients for self-administered drugs (i.e., drugs that are not administered by a physician). Medicare Part D is administered by private prescription drug plans approved by the U.S. government and, subject to detailed program rules and government oversight, each drug plan establishes its own Medicare Part D formulary for prescription drug coverage and pricing, which the drug plan may modify from time to time. The prescription drug plans negotiate pricing with manufacturers and pharmacies and may condition formulary placement on the availability of
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manufacturer discounts. In addition, manufacturers, including us, are currently required to provide to CMS a 70% discount on brand name prescription drugs utilized by Medicare Part D beneficiaries when those beneficiaries are in the coverage gap phase of the Part D benefit design. Civil monetary penalties could be due if we fail to offer discounts to beneficiaries under the Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program. The IRA sunsets the coverage gap discount program starting in 2025 and replaces it with a new manufacturer discount program. Failure to pay a discount under this new program will be subject to a civil monetary penalty. In addition, starting in October 2022, the IRA establishes a Medicare Part D inflation rebate scheme, under which, generally speaking, manufacturers will owe additional rebates if the average manufacturer price of a Part D drug increases faster than the pace of inflation. Failure to timely pay a Part D inflation rebate is subject to a civil monetary penalty.
The IRA also creates a drug price negotiation program under which the prices for Medicare units of certain high Medicare spend drugs and biologicals without generic or biosimilar competition will be capped by reference to, among other things, a specified non-federal average manufacturer price starting in 2026. Failure to comply with requirements under the drug price negotiation program is subject to an excise tax and/or a civil monetary penalty. This or any other legislative change could impact the market conditions for our products. We further expect continued scrutiny on government price reporting from Congress, agencies, and other bodies.
Pursuant to applicable law, knowing provision of false information in connection with price reporting under the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, FSS or Tricare Retail Pharmacy, or Tricare, programs can subject a manufacturer to civil monetary penalties. These program obligations also contain extensive disclosure and certification requirements. If we overcharge the government in connection with our arrangements with FSS or Tricare, we are required to refund the difference to the government. Failure to make necessary disclosures and/or to identify contract overcharges can result in allegations against us under the False Claims Act and other laws and regulations. Unexpected refunds to the government, and responding to a government investigation or enforcement action, would be expensive and time-consuming, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Product liability and product recalls could harm our business.
The development, manufacture, testing, marketing and sale of pharmaceutical products are associated with significant risks of product liability claims or recalls. Side effects or adverse events known or reported to be associated with, or manufacturing defects in, the products sold by us could exacerbate a patient’s condition, or could result in serious injury or impairment or even death. This could result in product liability claims against us and/or recalls of one or more of our products. In many countries, including in EU member states, national laws provide for strict (no-fault) liability which applies even where damages are caused both by a defect in a product and by the act or omission of a third party.
Product recalls may be issued at our discretion or at the discretion of our suppliers, government agencies and other entities that have regulatory authority for pharmaceutical sales. Any recall of our products could materially adversely affect our business by rendering us unable to sell that product for some time and by adversely affecting our reputation. A recall could also result in product liability claims by individuals and third party payors. In addition, product liability claims could result in an investigation of the safety or efficacy of our products, our manufacturing processes and facilities, or our marketing programs conducted by FDA, the EC or the competent authorities of the EU member states. Such investigations could also potentially lead to a recall of our products or more serious enforcement actions, limitations on the therapeutic indications for which they may be used, or suspension, variation, or withdrawal of approval. Any such regulatory action by FDA, the EC or the competent authorities of the EU member states could lead to product liability lawsuits as well.
Product liability insurance coverage is expensive, can be difficult to obtain and may not be available in the future on acceptable terms, or at all. Our product liability insurance may not cover all of the future liabilities we might incur in connection with the development, manufacture or sale of our products. A successful claim or claims brought against us in excess of available insurance coverage could subject us to significant liabilities and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. Such claims could also harm our reputation and the reputation of our products, adversely affecting our ability to market our products successfully.
We use hazardous materials in our manufacturing facilities, and any claims relating to the improper handling, storage, release or disposal of these materials could be time-consuming and expensive.
Our operations are subject to complex and increasingly stringent environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in the countries where we operate and, in particular, in Ireland, the U.K. and Italy where we have manufacturing facilities. If an accident or contamination involving pollutants or hazardous substances occurs, an injured party could seek to hold us liable for any damages that result and any liability could exceed the limits or fall outside the coverage of our insurance. We may not be able to maintain insurance with sufficient coverage on acceptable terms, or at all. Costs, damages and/or fines may result from the presence, investigation and remediation of such contamination at properties currently or formerly owned, leased or operated by us or at off-site locations, including where we have arranged for the disposal of hazardous substances or waste. In addition, we may be subject to third party claims, including for natural resource damages, personal injury and property damage, in connection with such contamination.
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Risks Related to Controlled Substances
Xyrem and Xywav are controlled substances and certain product candidates we are developing may be subject to U.S. federal and state controlled substance laws and regulations, and our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, or the cost of compliance with these laws and regulations, could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.
Xyrem and Xywav and certain product candidates we are developing contain controlled substances as defined in state law and the federal CSA. Controlled substances are subject to a number of requirements and restrictions under the CSA and implementing regulations, including certain registration, security, recordkeeping, reporting, import, export and other requirements administered by the DEA. The DEA classifies controlled substances into five schedules: Schedule I, II, III, IV or V substances. Schedule I substances by definition have a high potential for abuse, no currently “accepted medical use” in the U.S., lack accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and may not be prescribed, marketed or sold in the U.S. Pharmaceutical products approved for use in the U.S. which contain a controlled substance are listed as Schedule II, III, IV or V, with Schedule II substances considered to present the highest potential for abuse or dependence and Schedule V substances the lowest relative risk of abuse among such substances. Schedule I and II drugs are subject to the strictest controls under the CSA, including manufacturing and procurement quotas, heightened security requirements and additional criteria for importation. In addition, dispensing of Schedule II drugs is restricted. For example, they may not be refilled without a new prescription.
Drug products approved for medical use by FDA that contain cannabis or cannabis extracts may be controlled substances and will be rescheduled to Schedules II-V after approval, or, like Epidiolex, removed completely from the schedules by operation of other laws.
Individual states have also established controlled substance laws and regulations. Though state-controlled substances laws often mirror federal law, they may separately schedule our products or our product candidates as well. We or our partners may also be required to obtain separate state registrations, permits or licenses in order to be able to manufacture, distribute, administer or prescribe controlled substances for clinical trials or commercial sale, and failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements could lead to enforcement and sanctions by the states in addition to those from the DEA or otherwise arising under federal law.
U.S. facilities conducting research, manufacturing, distributing, importing or exporting, or dispensing controlled substances must be registered (licensed) to perform these activities and must comply with the security, control, recordkeeping and reporting obligations under the CSA, DEA regulations and corresponding state requirements. DEA and state regulatory bodies conduct periodic inspections of certain registered establishments that handle controlled substances. Obtaining and maintaining the necessary registrations and complying with the regulatory obligations may result in delay of the importation, manufacturing, distribution or clinical research of our commercial products and products candidates. Furthermore, failure to maintain compliance with the CSA and DEA and state regulations by us or any of our contractors, distributors or pharmacies can result in regulatory action that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. DEA and state regulatory bodies may seek civil penalties, refuse to renew necessary registrations, or initiate proceedings to restrict, suspend or revoke those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations could lead to criminal penalties.
Schedule I and II substances are subject to DEA’s annual manufacturing and procurement quota requirements. The annual quota allocated to us or our contract manufacturers for the active ingredients in our products may not be sufficient to complete clinical trials or meet commercial demand. Consequently, any delay or refusal by the DEA in establishing our, or our contract manufacturers’, procurement and/or production quota for controlled substances could delay or stop our clinical trials or product launches, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.
Some of our cannabinoid product candidates are currently controlled substances, the use of which may generate public controversy.
Some of our product candidates derived from botanical marijuana contain controlled substances, their regulatory approval may generate public controversy. Political and social pressures and adverse publicity could lead to challenges in the approval of, and increased expenses for, our product candidates. These pressures could also limit or restrict the introduction and marketing of our product candidates. Adverse publicity from cannabis misuse or adverse side effects from cannabis or other cannabinoid products may adversely affect the commercial success or market penetration achievable by our cannabinoid product candidates. The nature of our business attracts a high level of public and media interest, and in the event of any resultant adverse publicity, our reputation may be harmed.
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Our ability to research, develop and commercialize Epidiolex/Epidyolex and certain of our product candidates is dependent on our ability to maintain licenses relating to the cultivation, possession and supply of botanical cannabis, a controlled substance.
Our cannabinoid research and manufacturing facilities are located exclusively in the U.K. In the U.K., licenses to cultivate, possess and supply cannabis for medical research are granted by the U.K. government on an annual basis. Although our licenses have been renewed each year since 1998, they may not in the future, in which case we may not be able to carry on our research and development program in the U.K. In addition, we are required to maintain our existing commercial licenses to cultivate, produce and supply cannabis. However, if the U.K. government were not prepared to renew such licenses, we would be unable to manufacture and distribute our products on a commercial basis in the U.K. or beyond. In order to carry out research in countries other than the U.K., similar licenses to those outlined above are required to be issued by the relevant authority in each country. In addition, we will be required to obtain licenses to export from the U.K. and to import into the recipient country. To date, we have obtained necessary import and export licenses to over 30 countries. Although we have an established track record of successfully obtaining such licenses as required, this may change in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and growth prospects.
Controlled substance legislation differs between countries and legislation in certain countries may restrict or limit our ability to sell Epidyolex and certain of our product candidates.
Most countries are parties to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, which governs international trade and domestic control of narcotic substances, including cannabis extracts. Countries may interpret and implement their treaty obligations in a way that creates a legal obstacle to our obtaining regulatory approval for Epidyolex and certain of our product candidates in those countries. These countries may not be willing or able to amend or otherwise modify their laws and regulations to permit Epidyolex or certain of our product candidates to be marketed, or achieving such amendments to the laws and regulations may take a prolonged period of time. In the case of countries with similar obstacles, we would be unable to market Epidyolex and certain of our product candidates in countries in the near future or perhaps at all if the laws and regulations in those countries do not change.

Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Results
We have incurred substantial debt, which could impair our flexibility and access to capital and adversely affect our financial position, and our business would be adversely affected if we are unable to service our debt obligations.
As of December 31, 2022, we had total indebtedness of approximately $5.8 billion. Our substantial indebtedness may:
limit our ability to use our cash flow or borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, investments or other general business purposes;
require us to use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make debt service payments;
limit our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business and industry, or our ability to take specified actions to take advantage of certain business opportunities that may be presented to us;
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under the credit agreement, are at variable rates of interest;
result in dilution to our existing shareholders in the event exchanges of our exchangeable senior notes are settled in our ordinary shares;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our less leveraged competitors; and
increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic and industry conditions.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our debt. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our debt service obligations. In the absence of such cash flows and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. In addition, if we are unable to repay amounts under our secured credit agreement or senior secured notes, the credit agreement lenders and note holders could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that debt, which would seriously harm our business.
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Covenants in our credit agreement and indenture governing our senior secured notes restrict our business and operations in many ways and if we do not effectively manage our covenants, our financial conditions and results of operations could be adversely affected.
The credit agreement and the indenture governing our senior secured notes contain various covenants that, among other things, limit our ability and/or our restricted subsidiaries’ ability to:
incur or assume liens or additional debt or provide guarantees in respect of obligations of other persons;
pay dividends or distributions or redeem or repurchase capital stock;
prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt;
make loans, investments, acquisitions (including certain acquisitions of exclusive licenses) and capital expenditures;
enter into agreements that restrict distributions from our subsidiaries;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
enter into sale and lease-back transactions;
sell, transfer or exclusively license certain assets, including material intellectual property, and capital stock of our subsidiaries; and
consolidate or merge with or into, or sell substantially all of our assets to, another person.
If we undergo a change of control triggering event, we would be required to make an offer to purchase all of the senior secured notes at a purchase price in cash equal to 101% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, subject to certain exceptions. If we engage in certain asset sales, we will be required under certain circumstances to make an offer to purchase the senior secured notes at 100% of the principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest.
The credit agreement also includes certain financial covenants that require us to maintain a maximum secured leverage ratio and a minimum interest coverage ratio as long as we have drawn funds under the revolving credit facility (or letters of credit in excess of $50 million have been issued and remain undrawn).
As a result of these restrictions, we may be:
limited in how we conduct our business;
unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to operate during general economic or business downturns; or
unable to compete effectively, take advantage of new business opportunities or grow in accordance with our plans.
Our failure to comply with any of the covenants could result in a default under the credit agreement and the indenture governing our senior secured notes, which, if not cured or waived, could result in us having to repay our borrowings before their due dates. Such default may allow the lenders or the note holders to accelerate the related debt and may result in the acceleration of any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. If we are forced to refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms or if we were to experience difficulty in refinancing the debt prior to maturity, our results of operations or financial condition could be materially affected. In addition, an event of default under the credit agreement may permit the lenders to refuse to permit additional borrowings under the revolving credit facility or to terminate all commitments to extend further credit under the revolving credit facility. Furthermore, if we are unable to repay the amounts due and payable under the credit agreement or senior secured notes, the lenders and note holders may be able to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that indebtedness. In the event our lenders or note holders accelerate the repayment of such borrowings, we cannot assure you that we will have sufficient assets to repay such indebtedness.
A default under the indentures governing our exchangeable senior notes could also lead to a default under other debt agreements or obligations, including the credit agreement and indenture governing the senior secured notes. Likewise, a default under the credit agreement or senior secured notes could lead to a default under other debt agreements or obligations, including the indentures governing our exchangeable senior notes.
To continue to grow our business, we will need to commit substantial resources, which could result in future losses or otherwise limit our opportunities or affect our ability to operate and grow our business.
The scope of our business and operations has grown substantially, including through a series of business combinations and acquisitions. To continue to grow our business over the longer term, we plan to commit substantial resources to product acquisition and in-licensing, product development, clinical trials of product candidates and expansion of our commercial, development, manufacturing and other operations. Acquisition opportunities that we pursue could materially affect our liquidity and capital resources and may require us to incur additional indebtedness, seek equity capital or both. Our ability to raise additional capital may be adversely impacted by worsening global economic conditions and the recent disruptions to, and
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volatility in, the credit and financial markets in the U.S. and worldwide resulting from the effects of inflationary pressures or otherwise. In addition, under Irish law we must have authority from our shareholders to issue any ordinary shares, including ordinary shares that are part of our authorized but unissued share capital, and we currently have such authorization. Moreover, as a matter of Irish law, when an Irish public limited company issues ordinary shares to new shareholders for cash, the company must first offer those shares on the same or more favorable terms to existing shareholders on a pro-rata basis, unless this statutory pre-emption obligation is dis-applied, or opted-out of, by approval of its shareholders. At our annual general meeting of shareholders in July 2022, our shareholders voted to approve our proposal to dis-apply the statutory pre-emption obligation on terms that are substantially more limited than our general pre-emption opt-out authority that had been in effect prior to August 4, 2021. This current pre-emption opt-out authority is due to expire in December 2023. If we are unable to obtain further pre-emption authorities from our shareholders in the future, or otherwise continue to be limited by the terms of new pre-emption authorities approved by our shareholders in the future, our ability to use our unissued share capital to fund in-licensing, acquisition or other business opportunities, or to otherwise raise capital, could be adversely affected. In any event, an inability to borrow or raise additional capital in a timely manner and on attractive terms could prevent us from expanding our business or taking advantage of acquisition opportunities and could otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business and growth prospects. In addition, if we use a substantial amount of our funds to acquire or in-license products or product candidates, we may not have sufficient additional funds to conduct all of our operations in the manner we would otherwise choose.
We have significant intangible assets and goodwill. Consequently, the future impairment of our intangible assets and goodwill may significantly impact our profitability.
Our intangible assets and goodwill are significant and are subject to an impairment analysis whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. Additionally, goodwill and indefinite-lived assets are subject to an impairment test at least annually. Events giving rise to impairment are an inherent risk in the pharmaceutical industry and cannot be predicted. For example, in the third quarter of 2022, we recorded a $133.6 million asset impairment charge as a result of the decision to discontinue our nabiximols program. Our results of operations and financial position in future periods could be negatively impacted should future impairments of intangible assets or goodwill occur.
Our financial results have been and may continue to be adversely affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Because our financial results are reported in U.S. dollars, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk as the functional currency financial statements of non-U.S. subsidiaries are translated to U.S. dollars for reporting purposes. To the extent that revenue and expense transactions are not denominated in the functional currency, we are also subject to the risk of transaction losses. For example, because our product sales outside of the U.S. are primarily denominated in the euro, our sales of those products have been and may continue to be adversely affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. Given the volatility of exchange rates, as well as our expanding operations, there is no guarantee that we will be able to effectively manage currency transaction and/or translation risks, which could adversely affect our operating results. Although we utilize foreign exchange forward contracts to manage currency risk primarily related to certain intercompany balances denominated in non-functional currencies, our efforts to manage currency risk may not be successful.
Changes in our effective tax rates could adversely affect our business and financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We are incorporated in Ireland and maintain subsidiaries in North America, the U.K. and a number of other foreign jurisdictions. As a result, our effective tax rate is derived from a combination of applicable tax rates in the various jurisdictions where we operate. Our effective tax rate may fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the distribution of our profits or losses between the jurisdictions where we operate and changes to or differences in interpretation of tax laws. For example, our income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2021 included an expense of $259.9 million arising on the remeasurement of our U.K. net deferred tax liability, which arose primarily in relation to the GW Acquisition, due to a change in the statutory tax rate in the U.K. following enactment of the U.K. Finance Act 2021.
We are subject to reviews and audits by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and other taxing authorities from time to time, and the IRS or other taxing authority may challenge our structure, transfer pricing arrangements and tax positions through an audit or lawsuit. Responding to or defending against challenges from taxing authorities could be expensive and consume time and other resources. If we are unsuccessful, we may be required to pay additional taxes for prior periods, interest, fines or penalties, and may be obligated to pay increased taxes in the future, any of which could require us to reduce our operating expenses, decrease efforts in support of our products or seek to raise additional funds. Any of these actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Changes to tax laws relating to multinational corporations could adversely affect us.
The U.S. Congress, the EU, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, or OECD, and other government agencies in jurisdictions where we and our affiliates do business have had an extended focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational corporations. As a result of the focus on the taxation of multinational corporations, the tax laws in
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Ireland, the U.S. and other countries in which we and our affiliates do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis, and any such changes could adversely affect us.
One example is the OECD’s initiative in the area of “base erosion and profit shifting,” or BEPS. Many countries have implemented or begun to implement legislation and other guidance to align their international tax rules with the OECD’s BEPS recommendations. In addition, the OECD has been working on an extension of the BEPS project, referred to as BEPS 2.0, focusing on (1) global profit allocation and (2) a global minimum tax rate. In particular, the OECD has released a framework proposal reflecting the agreement of over 140 jurisdictions, including Ireland, to implement a global minimum tax rate of 15% for large multinational corporations on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis. In December 2022, the EU agreed to implement this global minimum tax rate for EU member states by the start of 2024 and therefore Ireland will be required to introduce these new rules from the start of 2024.
Further, on August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the IRA into law, which, among other things, introduced new tax provisions, including a 15 percent corporate alternative minimum tax for certain large corporations, and a one percent excise tax on certain share repurchases by publicly traded corporations, including certain repurchases by specified domestic affiliates of publicly traded foreign corporations. These provisions will be effective for 2023. The IRS has issued limited guidance on the corporate alternative minimum tax, the excise tax and the other provisions in the IRA, and this guidance has yet to be finalized. We are currently evaluating the effect of the new law on our financial results. The U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate continue to consider other changes in tax laws that apply to multinationals which, if enacted, could adversely impact our tax provision, cash tax liability and effective tax rate.
The IRS may not agree with the conclusion that we should be treated as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal tax purposes.
Although we are incorporated in Ireland, the IRS may assert that we should be treated as a U.S. corporation (and, therefore, a U.S. tax resident) for U.S. federal tax purposes pursuant to Section 7874 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, or the Code. For U.S. federal tax purposes, a corporation generally is considered a tax resident in the jurisdiction of its organization or incorporation. Because we are an Irish incorporated entity, we would be classified as a foreign corporation (and, therefore, a non-U.S. tax resident) under these rules. Section 7874 of the Code provides an exception under which a foreign incorporated entity may, in certain circumstances, be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal tax purposes. Because we indirectly acquired all of Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s assets through the acquisition of the shares of Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. common stock when the businesses of Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Azur Pharma Public Limited Company were combined in a merger transaction in January 2012, or the Azur Merger, the IRS could assert that we should be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal tax purposes under Section 7874. The IRS continues to scrutinize transactions that are potentially subject to Section 7874, and has issued several sets of final and temporary regulations under Section 7874 since 2012. We do not expect these regulations to affect the U.S. tax consequences of the Azur Merger. Nevertheless, new statutory and/or regulatory provisions under Section 7874 of the Code or otherwise could be enacted that could adversely affect our status as a foreign corporation for U.S. federal tax purposes, and any such provisions could have prospective or retroactive application to us, our shareholders, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and/or the Azur Merger.
Our ability to use net operating losses and carryforward tax losses to offset potential taxable income is limited under applicable law and could be subject to further limitations if we do not generate taxable income in a timely manner or if certain “ownership change” provisions of applicable law result in further limitations.
Our ability to use net operating losses, or NOLs, to offset potential future taxable income and related income taxes that would otherwise be due also depends on our ability to generate future income that is taxable in the U.S. before the NOLs expire. We cannot predict with certainty when, or whether, our U.S. affiliates will generate sufficient taxable income to use all of the NOLs. In addition, the use of NOLs to offset potential future taxable income and related income taxes that would otherwise be due is subject to limitations under the “ownership change” provisions of Sections 382 and 383 of the Code and similar state provisions. Additionally, U.K. carryforward tax losses may become subject to limitations in the event of certain changes in the ownership interest of significant shareholders where there is also a major change in the nature of conduct of a trade or business within a specified period of time. These limitations may cause us to lose or forfeit additional NOLs or carryforward tax losses before we can use these attributes. Subsequent ownership changes and changes to the U.S. federal or state or U.K. tax rules with respect to the use of NOLs and carryforward tax losses may further affect our ability to use these losses in future years.
A substantial portion of our indebtedness bears interest at variable interest rates based on USD LIBOR. Changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect interest rates on our current or future indebtedness and may otherwise adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, or FCA, the authority that regulates the London Inter-bank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, announced that it intended to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. FCA
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also announced that certain of the commonly used USD LIBOR tenors will continue to be published until June 30, 2023; however, the Federal Reserve, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Office of the Comptroller of Currency in the U.S. as well as the FCA announced that all market participants should stop using LIBOR in new contracts after December 31, 2021, subject to limited exemptions for loans and derivative products. Accordingly, new contracts entered into after December 31, 2021, must utilize an alternative reference rate. Our credit agreement is indexed to USD LIBOR. Changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect interest rates on our current or future indebtedness. Any transition process may involve, among other things, increased volatility or illiquidity in markets for instruments that rely on LIBOR, reductions in the value of certain instruments or the effectiveness of related transactions such as hedges, increased borrowing costs, uncertainty under applicable documentation, or difficult and costly consent processes. Furthermore, the transition away from LIBOR may result in increased expenses, may impair our ability to refinance our indebtedness or hedge our exposure to floating rate instruments, or may result in difficulties, complications or delays in connection with future financing efforts, any of which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares
The market price of our ordinary shares has been volatile and is likely to continue to be volatile in the future, and the value of your investment could decline significantly.
The stock market in general, including the market for life sciences companies, has experienced extreme price and trading volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies, which has resulted in decreased market prices, notwithstanding the lack of a fundamental change in the underlying business models of those companies. Worsening economic conditions and other adverse effects or developments may negatively affect the market price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our actual operating performance. The market price for our ordinary shares is likely to continue to be volatile and subject to significant price and volume fluctuations in response to market, industry and other factors, including the risk factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.
Our share price may be dependent upon the valuations and recommendations of the analysts who cover our business. If our results do not meet these analysts’ forecasts, the expectations of our investors or the financial guidance we provide to investors in any period, the market price of our ordinary shares could decline. Our ability to meet analysts’ forecasts, investors’ expectations and our financial guidance is substantially dependent on our ability to maintain or increase sales of our marketed products.
In addition, the market price of our ordinary shares may decline if the effects of our acquisition of GW and other strategic transactions on our financial or operating results are not consistent with the expectations of financial analysts or investors. The market price of our ordinary shares could also be affected by possible sales of our ordinary shares by holders of our exchangeable senior notes who may view our exchangeable senior notes as a more attractive means of equity participation in our company and by hedging or arbitrage trading activity involving our ordinary shares by the holders of our exchangeable senior notes.
We are subject to Irish law, which differs from the laws in effect in the U.S. and may afford less protection to holders of our securities.
It may not be possible to enforce court judgments obtained in the U.S. against us in Ireland based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws. In addition, there is some uncertainty as to whether the courts of Ireland would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws or hear actions against us or those persons based on those laws. We have been advised that the U.S. currently does not have a treaty with Ireland providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. Therefore, a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any U.S. federal or state court based on civil liability, whether or not based solely on U.S. federal or state securities laws, would not automatically be enforceable in Ireland.
As an Irish company, we are governed by the Irish Companies Act 2014, which differs in some material respects from laws generally applicable to U.S. corporations and shareholders, including, among others, differences relating to interested director and officer transactions, mergers, amalgamations and acquisitions, takeovers and shareholder lawsuits. The duties of directors and officers of an Irish company are generally owed to the company only. Shareholders of Irish companies generally do not have a personal right of action against directors or officers of the company and may exercise such rights of action on behalf of the company only in limited circumstances. Accordingly, holders of our securities may have more difficulty protecting their interests than would holders of securities of a corporation incorporated in a U.S. jurisdiction.
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Our articles of association, Irish law, our credit agreement and the indentures governing our senior secured notes and exchangeable senior notes contain provisions that could delay or prevent a takeover of us by a third party.
Our articles of association could delay, defer or prevent a third party from acquiring us, despite the possible benefit to our shareholders, or otherwise adversely affect the price of our ordinary shares. In addition to our articles of association, several mandatory provisions of Irish law could prevent or delay an acquisition of us. We are also subject to various provisions of Irish law relating to mandatory bids, voluntary bids, requirements to make a cash offer and minimum price requirements, as well as substantial acquisition rules and rules requiring the disclosure of interests in our shares in certain circumstances. Furthermore, our credit agreement limits our ability to enter into certain fundamental changes, and the indentures governing our senior secured notes and exchangeable senior notes require us to offer to repurchase such notes for cash if we undergo certain fundamental changes. Additionally, in certain circumstances, the indentures governing our exchangeable senior notes require us to increase the exchange rate for a holder of our exchangeable senior notes in connection with a fundamental change. A takeover of us may trigger a default under the credit agreement or the requirement that we offer to purchase our senior secured notes or exchangeable senior notes and/or increase the exchange rate applicable to our exchangeable senior notes, which could make it more costly for a potential acquirer to engage in a business combination transaction with us.
These provisions, whether alone or together, may discourage potential takeover attempts, discourage bids for our ordinary shares at a premium over the market price or adversely affect the market price of, and the voting and other rights of the holders of, our ordinary shares. These provisions, whether alone or together, could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for our shareholders to elect directors other than the candidates nominated by our board.
Future sales and issuances of our ordinary shares, securities convertible into our ordinary shares or rights to purchase ordinary shares or convertible securities could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our shareholders and could cause our share price to decline.
We expect to continue to opportunistically seek access to additional capital to license or acquire additional products, product candidates or companies to expand our operations or for general corporate purposes. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable for ordinary shares, our shareholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell ordinary shares, and we may sell convertible or exchangeable securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell such ordinary shares, convertible or exchangeable securities or other equity securities in subsequent transactions, existing shareholders may be materially diluted.
We have never declared or paid dividends on our capital stock and we do not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future.
We do not currently plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the payment of dividends will, subject to Irish legal requirements, be at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, compliance with the terms of the credit agreement and the indenture governing our senior secured notes, and other factors our board of directors deems relevant. Accordingly, holders of our ordinary shares must rely on increases in the trading price of their shares for returns on their investment in the foreseeable future. In addition, in the event that we pay a dividend on our ordinary shares, in certain circumstances, as an Irish tax resident company, some shareholders may be subject to withholding tax, which could adversely affect the price of our ordinary shares.
General Risk Factors
If we fail to attract, retain and motivate key personnel or to retain the members of our executive management team, our operations and our future growth may be adversely affected.
Our success and our ability to grow depend in part on our continued ability to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified personnel, including our executive management team. In addition, changes we make to our current and future work environments may not meet the needs or expectations of our employees or may be perceived as less favorable compared to other companies’ policies, which could negatively impact our ability to hire and retain qualified personnel, whether in a remote or in-office environment. The loss of services and institutional knowledge of one or more additional members of our executive management team or other key personnel could delay or prevent the successful completion of some of our vital activities and may negatively impact our operations and future growth. We do not carry “key person” insurance. In addition, changes in our organization as a result of executive management transition may have a disruptive impact on our ability to implement our strategy. Until we integrate new personnel, and unless they are able to succeed in their positions, we may be unable to successfully manage and grow our business. In any event, if we are unable to attract, retain and motivate quality individuals, or if there are delays, or if we do not successfully manage personnel and executive management transitions, our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects could be adversely affected.
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Our business and operations could be negatively affected if we become subject to shareholder activism or hostile bids, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder execution of our business strategy and impact our stock price.
Shareholder activism, which takes many forms and arises in a variety of situations, has been increasingly prevalent. Stock price declines may also increase our vulnerability to unsolicited approaches. If we become the subject of certain forms of shareholder activism, such as proxy contests or hostile bids, the attention of our management and our board of directors may be diverted from execution of our strategy. Such shareholder activism could give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future strategy, adversely affect our relationships with business partners and make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel. Also, we may incur substantial costs, including significant legal fees and other expenses, related to activist shareholder matters. Our stock price could be subject to significant fluctuation or otherwise be adversely affected by the events, risks and uncertainties of any shareholder activism.

Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
There are no material unresolved written comments that were received from the SEC staff 180 days or more before the end of our 2022 fiscal year relating to our periodic or current reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
Item 2.Properties
Our corporate headquarters are located in Dublin, Ireland, and our U.S. operations are located in Palo Alto, California, Carlsbad, California and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In addition to our owned manufacturing and development facilities and our leased administrative, manufacturing and development facilities, we also have dedicated growing facilities operated by contract partners. The following table contains information about our significant properties as of December 31, 2022:
TypeLocationApproximate Square Feet Lease / Contract
Expiration Date
Administrative officeDublin, Ireland45,0002036
Administrative officePalo Alto, United States99,0002029
Administrative officeCarlsbad, United States52,0002023-2027
Administrative officePhiladelphia, United States60,0002029
Administrative officeOxford, United Kingdom26,0002028
Administrative officeCambridge, United Kingdom22,0002030-2031
Administrative officeLondon, United Kingdom7,0002028
Administrative office and laboratoryVilla Guardia (Como), Italy34,0002023
Manufacturing and developmentAthlone, Ireland58,000Owned
Manufacturing and developmentVilla Guardia (Como), Italy45,000Owned
Manufacturing and developmentSouthern United Kingdom156,0002023-2033
Growing facilityEastern United Kingdom1,960,0002026
Growing facilityNorthern United Kingdom915,0002025
Growing facilitySouthern United Kingdom165,0002028
Growing facility under constructionSouthern United Kingdom370,0002035
In addition, we have offices in Canada, Japan, Australia, France and elsewhere in Europe.
We believe that our existing properties are in good condition and suitable for the conduct of our business. As we continue to expand our operations, we may need to lease additional or alternative facilities.
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
The information required to be set forth under this Item 3 is incorporated by reference to Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies—Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5.Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our ordinary shares trade on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “JAZZ.”
Holders of Ordinary Shares
As of February 22, 2023, there were 898 holders of record of our ordinary shares. Because almost all of our ordinary shares are held by brokers, nominees and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of shareholders represented by these record holders.
Dividends
In 2022 and 2021, we did not declare or pay cash dividends on our common equity.  Under Irish law, dividends may only be paid, and share repurchases and redemptions must generally be funded only out of, “distributable reserves.”  In addition, the terms of our credit agreement restrict our ability to make certain restricted payments, including dividends and other distributions by us in respect of our ordinary shares, subject to, among other exceptions, (1) a general exception for dividends and restricted payments up to $30 million in the aggregate and (2) an exception that allows for restricted payments, subject to a cap equal to the sum of (i) $100 million plus (ii) so long as our secured leverage ratio (as defined in our credit agreement) does not exceed 3:1 after giving pro forma effect to the restricted payment, a formula-based amount tied to our consolidated net income; provided that such cap applies only if our total leverage ratio (as defined in our credit agreement) exceeds 2:1 after giving pro forma effect to the restricted payment. Any future determination as to the payment of dividends will, subject to Irish legal requirements, be at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, compliance with the terms of our credit agreement or other future borrowing arrangements, and other factors our board of directors deems relevant.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
Except as previously reported in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, during the year ended December 31, 2022, there were no unregistered sales of equity securities by us during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Irish Law Matters
As we are an Irish incorporated company, the following matters of Irish law are relevant to the holders of our ordinary shares.
Irish Restrictions on Import and Export of Capital
Except as indicated below, there are no restrictions on non-residents of Ireland dealing in Irish domestic securities, which includes ordinary shares of Irish companies. Dividends and redemption proceeds also continue to be freely transferable to non-resident holders of such securities. The Financial Transfers Act, 1992 gives power to the Minister for Finance of Ireland to restrict financial transfers between Ireland and other countries and persons. Financial transfers are broadly defined and include all transfers that would be movements of capital or payments within the meaning of the treaties governing the member states of the European Union. The acquisition or disposal of interests in shares issued by an Irish incorporated company and associated payments falls within this definition. In addition, dividends or payments on redemption or purchase of shares and payments on a liquidation of an Irish incorporated company would fall within this definition. At present the Financial Transfers Act, 1992 prohibits financial transfers involving Belarus, Al-Qaida, the Taliban of Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea), Iran, Iraq, Côte d’Ivoire, Lebanon, Liberia, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Somalia, Republic of Guinea, Republic of Guinea-Bissau, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, certain known terrorists and terrorist groups, countries that harbor certain terrorist groups, Ukraine and persons responsible for human rights violations and the undermining of independence in Ukraine and the misappropriation of Ukrainian State funds without the prior permission of the Central Bank of Ireland.
Any transfer of, or payment in respect of, a share or interest in a share involving the government of any country that is currently the subject of United Nations sanctions, any person or body controlled by any of the foregoing, or by any person acting on behalf of the foregoing, may be subject to restrictions pursuant to such sanctions as implemented into Irish law.
Irish Taxes Applicable to U.S. Holders
Irish Tax on Dividends. While we have no current plans to pay dividends, dividends on our ordinary shares would generally be subject to Irish Dividend Withholding Tax at the standard rate (currently 25%), unless an exemption applies.
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Irish Tax on Capital Gains. A shareholder who (i) is neither resident nor ordinarily resident in Ireland for Irish tax purposes and (ii) does not use or hold, and did not acquire, our ordinary shares in connection with a trade or business carried on by such shareholder in Ireland through a branch or agency generally should not be subject to Irish tax on capital gains on a disposal of our ordinary shares.
A shareholder who is an individual and who is temporarily not resident in Ireland may, under Irish anti-avoidance legislation, still be liable for Irish tax on capital gains on any chargeable gain realized upon the disposal of our ordinary shares during the period in which such individual is a non-resident.
Capital Acquisitions Tax. Irish capital acquisitions tax, or CAT, is comprised principally of gift tax and inheritance tax. CAT could apply to a gift or inheritance of our ordinary shares irrespective of the place of residence, ordinary residence or domicile of the parties. This is because our ordinary shares are regarded as property situated in Ireland as our share register must be held in Ireland. The person who receives the gift or inheritance has primary liability for CAT.
CAT is levied at a rate of 33% above certain tax-free thresholds. The appropriate tax-free threshold is dependent upon (i) the relationship between the donor and the donee and (ii) the aggregation of the values of previous gifts and inheritances received by the donee from persons within the same category of relationship for CAT purposes. Gifts and inheritances passing between spouses are exempt from CAT. Our shareholders should consult their own tax advisers as to any tax consequences of holding our ordinary shares, including whether CAT is creditable or deductible in computing any domestic tax liabilities.
Stamp Duty. Irish stamp duty (if any) may become payable in respect of ordinary share transfers. However, a transfer of our ordinary shares from a seller who holds shares through Depository Trust Company, or DTC, to a buyer who holds the acquired shares through DTC will not be subject to Irish stamp duty. A transfer of our ordinary shares (i) by a seller who holds ordinary shares outside of DTC to any buyer or (ii) by a seller who holds the ordinary shares through DTC to a buyer who holds the acquired ordinary shares outside of DTC, may be subject to Irish stamp duty (currently at the rate of 1% of the price paid or the market value of the ordinary shares acquired, if greater). The person accountable for payment of stamp duty is the buyer or, in the case of a transfer by way of a gift or for less than market value, all parties to the transfer.
A shareholder who holds ordinary shares outside of DTC may transfer those ordinary shares into DTC without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the related book-entry interest in those ordinary shares recorded in the systems of DTC (and in exactly the same proportions) as a result of the transfer and at the time of the transfer into DTC there is no sale of those book-entry interests to a third party being contemplated by the shareholder. Similarly, a shareholder who holds ordinary shares through DTC may transfer those ordinary shares out of DTC without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the ordinary shares (and in exactly the same proportions) as a result of the transfer, and at the time of the transfer out of DTC there is no sale of those ordinary shares to a third party being contemplated by the shareholder. In order for the share registrar to be satisfied as to the application of this Irish stamp duty treatment where relevant, the shareholder must confirm to us that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the related book-entry interest in those ordinary shares recorded in the systems of DTC (and in exactly the same proportions) (or vice-versa) as a result of the transfer and there is no agreement being contemplated for the sale of the related book-entry interest or the ordinary shares or an interest in the ordinary shares, as the case may be, by the shareholder to a third party.
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Performance Measurement Comparison (1)
The following graphs show the total shareholder return on the last day of each year of an investment of $100 in cash as if made on December 31, 2017 and on the last day of each quarter of an investment of $100 in cash as if made on December 31, 2021, respectively, in (i) our ordinary shares; (ii) the Nasdaq Composite Index; and (iii) the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index through December 31, 2022. The shareholder return shown in the graphs below are not necessarily indicative of future performance, and we do not make or endorse any predictions as to future shareholder returns.
COMPARISON OF FIVE YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN (2)
https://cdn.kscope.io/c10b083b4e73c525111dcbc270995004-jazz-20221231_g1.jpg
COMPARISON OF ONE YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN (2)
https://cdn.kscope.io/c10b083b4e73c525111dcbc270995004-jazz-20221231_g2.jpg
_________________________
(1)This section is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed “filed” with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or Exchange Act, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing.
(2)Information used in the graph was obtained from Research Data Group, Inc.
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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
In November 2016, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program and as of December 31, 2022 had authorized the repurchase of ordinary shares having an aggregate purchase price of up to $1.5 billion, exclusive of any brokerage commissions. Under this program, which has no expiration date, we may repurchase ordinary shares from time to time on the open market. In 2022, we spent a total of $0.1 million to purchase 338 of our ordinary shares under the share repurchase program at a total purchase price, including commissions, of $160.70 per share. All ordinary shares repurchased were canceled. As of December 31, 2022, the remaining amount authorized under the share repurchase program was $431.2 million.
Under the share repurchase program, we are authorized to repurchase shares from time to time through open market repurchases. Such repurchases may be pursuant to Rule 10b-18 or Rule 10b5-1 agreements as determined by our management and in accordance with the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Item 6.Reserved

Item 7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The purpose of the Management Discussion and Analysis is to present information that management believes is relevant to promote a understanding of our results of operations and cash flows for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 and our financial condition as of December 31, 2022 and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes to consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. When reviewing the discussion below, you should keep in mind the substantial risks and uncertainties that impact our business. In particular, we encourage you to review the risks and uncertainties described in “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. These risks and uncertainties could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements contained in this report or implied by past results and trends.
Overview
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc is a global biopharmaceutical company whose purpose is to innovate to transform the lives of patients and their families. We are dedicated to developing life-changing medicines for people with serious diseases - often with limited or no therapeutic options. We have a diverse portfolio of marketed medicines and novel product candidates, from early- to late-stage development, in neuroscience and oncology. Within these therapeutic areas, we strive to identify new options for patients by actively exploring small molecules and biologics, and through innovative delivery technologies and cannabinoid science.
Our strategy for growth is rooted in executing commercial launches and ongoing commercialization initiatives; advancing robust research and development, or R&D, programs and delivering impactful clinical results; effectively deploying capital to strengthen the prospects of achieving our short- and long-term goals through strategic corporate development; and delivering strong financial performance. We focus on patient populations with high unmet needs. We identify and develop differentiated therapies for these patients that we expect will be long-lived assets and that we can support with an efficient commercialization model. In addition, we leverage our efficient, scalable operating model and integrated capabilities across our global infrastructure to effectively reach patients around the world.
In January 2022, we announced our Vision 2025, which aims to deliver sustainable growth and enhanced value, driving our continued transformation to an innovative, high-growth global pharmaceutical leader. The three core components of our Vision 2025 focus on commercial execution, pipeline productivity and operational excellence.
Our strategy to deliver sustainable growth and enhanced value is focused on:
Strong commercial execution to drive diversified revenue growth and address unmet medical needs of our patients across our product portfolio, which focuses on neuroscience and oncology medicines;
Expanding and advancing our pipeline to achieve a valuable product portfolio of durable, highly differentiated programs;
Continuing to build a flexible, efficient and productive development engine for targeted therapeutic areas to identify and progress early-, mid- and late-stage assets;
Identifying and acquiring novel product candidates and approved therapies to complement our existing pipeline and commercial portfolio;
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Investing in an efficient, scalable operating model and differentiated capabilities to enable growth; and
Unlocking further value through indication expansion and entry into global markets.
In 2022, consistent with our strategy, we continued to focus on research and development activities within our neuroscience and oncology therapeutic areas. For a summary of our ongoing research and development activities, see “Business—Research and Development” in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our lead marketed products, listed below, are approved in countries around the world to improve patient care.
ProductIndication(s)Initial Approval DateMarket(s)
NEUROSCIENCE
Xywav® (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium oxybates)
Treatment of cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness, or EDS, in patients seven years of age and older with narcolepsy.


Treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia, or IH, in adults.

July 2020



August 2021

U.S.



U.S.
Xyrem® (sodium oxybate)
Treatment of cataplexy or EDS in patients seven years of age and older with narcolepsy.

For the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.

Treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adult patients, adolescents and children from age of 7 years.

July 2002


August 2005



October 2005
U.S.


Canada


EU, Great Britain, other markets (through licensing agreement)
Epidiolex® (cannabidiol)






Epidyolex® (cannabidiol)
Treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or LGS, Dravet syndrome, or DS, or tuberous sclerosis complex, or TSC, in patients 1 year of age and older.

For adjunctive therapy of seizures associated with LGS or DS, in conjunction with clobazam, for patients 2 years of age and older.*

For adjunctive therapy of seizures associated with TSC for patients 2 years of age and older.
June 2018



September 2019




April 2021
U.S.



EU, Great Britain, Israel, Australia and New Zealand



EU, Great Britain, Israel
ONCOLOGY
Zepzelca® (lurbinectedin)
Treatment of adult patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer, or SCLC, with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy.

Treatment of adults with Stage III or metastatic SCLC who have progressed on or after platinum-containing therapy.
June 2020



September 2021
U.S. (licensed from PharmaMar)**


Canada (licensed from PharmaMar)***
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Rylaze® (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-
rywn
A component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL, and lymphoblastic lymphoma, or LBL, in adult and pediatric patients 1 month or older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.

A component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of ALL and LBL, in adults and pediatric patients 1 year or older who have developed hypersensitivity to
E. coli-derived asparaginase.
June 2021

September 2022
U.S.

Canada
Vyxeos® (daunorubicin and cytarabine) liposome for injection


Vyxeos® liposomal 44 mg/100 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

Vyxeos® Daunorubicin and cytarabine liposome for injection Powder, 44 mg daunorubicin and 100 mg cytarabine per vial, intravenous infusion
Treatment of newly-diagnosed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia, or t-AML or AML-MRC in adults and pediatric patients one year and older.

Treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC.



Treatment of adults with newly diagnosed therapy-related t-AML or AML with AML-MRC.
August 2017




August 2018





April 2021

U.S.




EU, Great Britain, Switzerland, Israel, Australia, South Korea





Canada

Defitelio® (defibrotide)




Defitelio® (defibrotide sodium)



Defitelio® (defibrotide sodium)


Defitelio® (defibrotide)
Treatment of severe hepatic VOD, also known as SOS, following HSCT therapy.


Treatment of adult and pediatric patients with hepatic VOD, also known as SOS, with renal or pulmonary dysfunction following HSCT.